TABLE 1

Baseline Characteristics of Incident ADHD Medication Users and Their Matched Non-ADHD Medication Users Aged 3 to 17 Years, Stratified According to Type of ADHD Medication

Baseline VariablesAmphetamine Users, n = 93 470 (%)Amphetamine Nonusers, n = 373 880 (%)PAtomoxetine Users, n = 19 830 (%)Atomoxetine Nonusers, n = 79 320 (%)PMethylphenidate Users, n = 128 117 (%)Methylphenidate Nonusers, n = 512 468 (%)P
Follow-up time, median (interquartile range), d90 (30–240)582 (216–1312)<.00160 (30–145)610 (244–1038)<.00191 (30–238)611 (216–1371)<.001
Age, median (interquartile range), y9 (7–12)9 (7–13).12511 (8–14)11 (8–14).0349 (7–12)9 (7–12)<.001
Female26 124 (27.9)104 496 (27.9)1.0006052 (30.5)24 208 (30.5)1.00034 960 (27.3)139 840 (27.3)1.000
HealthCore Integrated Research Database enrollees23 841 (25.5)95 364 (25.5)1.00011 109 (56.0)44 436 (56.0)1.00035 140 (27.4)140 560 (27.4)1.000
Racea<.001<.001<.001
    White40 415 (58.0)107 584 (38.6)5902 (67.7)15 082 (43.2)48 275 (51.9)134 797 (36.2)
    Black13 157 (18.9)77 468 (27.8)1278 (14.7)10 157 (29.1)19 342 (20.8)96 247 (25.9)
    Hispanic8395 (12.1)67 255 (24.1)883 (10.1)6661 (19.1)15 720 (16.9)101 997 (27.4)
    Other7662 (11.0)26 209 (9.4)658 (7.5)2984 (8.6)9640 (10.4)38 867 (10.5)
Claim received with an ADHD diagnosisb68 863 (73.7)8270 (2.2)<.00113 092 (66.0)1404 (1.8)<.00194 257 (73.6)11 192 (2.2)<.001
Any inpatient or outpatient claim during the baseline period86 940 (93.0)309 014 (82.7)<.00117 875 (90.1)56 561 (71.3)<.001118 440 (92.4)416 999 (81.4)<.001
Cardiovascular disease/risk factorsc950 (1.0)1901 (0.5)<.001288 (1.5)436 (0.0)<.0011353 (1.1)2503 (0.5)<.001
Treatment for cardiovascular disease/risk factorsd5423 (5.8)2446 (0.7)<.0011114 (5.6)629 (0.8)<.0015031 (3.9)3169 (0.6)<.001
Congenital heart disease317 (0.3)632 (0.2)<.00176 (0.4)156 (0.2)<.001398 (0.3)968 (0.2)<.001
Electrocardiogram604 (0.6)875 (0.2)<.001247 (1.2)367 (0.5)<.001795 (0.6)1197 (0.2)<.001
Antipsychotic agent6104 (6.5)1441 (0.4)<.0011593 (8.0)357 (0.5)<.0016671 (5.2)2056 (0.4)<.001
Antiseizure agent2338 (2.5)1567 (0.4)<.001636 (3.2)339 (0.4)<.0012408 (1.9)2183 (0.4)<.001
Anxiolytic agent1131 (1.2)896 (0.2)<.001282 (1.4)235 (0.3)<.0011223 (1.0)1138 (0.2)<.001
Aspirin28 (0.0)54 (0.0).001e13 (0.0).09447 (0.0)92 (0.0)<.001
Bronchodilator9655 (10.3)23 334 (6.2)<.0011896 (9.6)5193 (6.5)<.00112 893 (10.1)33 119 (6.5)<.001
Bupropion2666 (2.9)497 (0.1)<.001697 (3.5)162 (0.2)<.0012878 (2.2)670 (0.1)<.001
Cyclooxygenase2 inhibitor74 (0.1)100 (0.0)<.00128 (0.1)35 (0.0)<.001104 (0.1)122 (0.0)<.001
Inhaled corticosteroid3197 (3.4)5706 (1.5)<.001748 (3.8)1592 (2.0)<.0014300 (3.4)8706 (1.7)<.001
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug4559 (4.9)12 116 (3.2)<.001910 (4.6)2170 (2.7)<.0016514 (5.1)17 303 (3.4)<.001
  • a Only available for the Medicaid population.

  • b Measured during baseline and follow-up time.

  • c Cardiovascular disease/risk factors refer to sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia, MI, stroke, cardiomyopathy, diabetes, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease.

  • d Treatment for cardiovascular disease/risk factors are use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, use of aldosterone inhibitor, use of antiadrenergic agent, use of antiarrhythmic agent, use of antidiabetes agent, use of antihyperlipidemic agent, use of β2 blocker, use of calcium channel blocker, use of loop diuretics, use of nitrate, use of thiazide diuretic, and use of a vasodilator.

  • e Omitted per Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Privacy Policy.