TABLE 1

National Estimates of Pediatric MDAEs According to Medical Specialty and Patient Age Group

Medical SpecialtyNo. of MDAEs, Estimate [95% CI] (%)
≤2 y3–5 y6–10 y11–15 y16–21 yTotal
Ophthalmic783 (4)1318 (12)2698 (16)11 131 (39)29 884 (42)45 791 [33 926–59 594] (31)
    Contact lenses (corneal abrasion, ulceration, conjunctivitis)23 (<1)23 (<1)186 (1)8514 (29)25 056 (35)33 779 [24 176–45 762] (23)
    Eyeglasses (laceration to eye or face)720 (4)1276 (11)2483 (15)2176 (8)1375 (2)8031 [5908–10 856] (6)
    Eye protection devices (corneal abrasion from device earpiece, foreign object in eye, photokeratitis)9 (<1)0 (0)0 (0)391 (1)3432 (5)3832 [1751–8246] (3)
General hospital2412 (14)1758 (15)3193 (19)2273 (8)11 518 (16)21 130 [17 442–25 444] (15)
    Hypodermic needles with/without syringe (puncture)556 (3)962 (8)2194 (13)1139 (4)7096 (10)11 947 [8105–17 380] (8)
    Intravenous catheters (hemorrhage, infection)911 (5)546 (5)680 (4)538 (2)1227 (2)3902 [1959–7673] (3)
    Intravenous/infusion pumps (contusion from being struck by device, no analgesia, hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia from device malfunction)0 (0)72 (1)299 (2)244 (1)1182 (2)1796 [1119–2875] (1)
    Examination tables, stretchers, lifts (contusion or laceration from falling from device, occupational hand/foot trauma)506 (3)23 (<1)0 (0)0 (0)1055 (1)1560 [950–2556] (1)
    Hospital beds, bed rails (contusion or laceration from falling from, striking, or being struck by device)200 (1)10 (<1)11 (<1)9 (<1)570 (1)799 [329–1933] (1)
    Equipment carts/stands, intravenous fluid poles (contusion or laceration from being struck by or falling over device)115 (1)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)115 [16–829] (<1)
    Medical sterilizers (thermal/chemical burn)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)116 (<1)116 [16–860] (<1)
    Other devices124 (1)146 (1)9 (<1)344 (1)273 (<1)873 [492–1546] (1)
Physical medicine2028 (12)1176 (10)3369 (20)5644 (20)6767 (10)18 961 [16 347–21 921] (13)
    Wheelchairs, scooters (laceration, contusion, sprain)1148 (7)593 (5)1518 (9)2480 (9)3536 (5)9252 [6822–12 472] (6)
    Casts, braces (paresthesia, abrasion, swelling from constrictive device)692 (4)211 (2)1109 (7)2133 (7)1005 (1)5149 [3460–7618] (4)
    Crutches, canes, walkers (laceration, fracture, contusion)32 (<1)219 (2)639 (4)880 (3)1401 (2)3171 [2235–4486] (2)
    Ice packs (chemical burn to application site)22 (<1)133 (1)0 (0)0 (0)120 (<1)275 [78–970] (<1)
    Vibrators, massage devices (device as foreign body in perineal orifice)10 (<1)0 (0)85 (<1)0 (0)0 (0)95 [15–580] (<1)
    Other devices125 (1)21 (<1)17 (<1)151 (<1)704 (1)943 [514–1725] (1)
Obstetrics/gynecology549 (3)108 (1)33 (<1)1936 (7)11 456 (16)14 082 [10 662–18 450] (10)
    Contraceptive devices (potential unintended pregnancy because of tear in condom during coitus)85 (<1)23 (<1)0 (0)168 (1)3774 (5)4050 [2592–6294] (3)
    Other devices (hymenal laceration from large speculum during pelvic examination)464 (3)85 (1)33 (<1)1768 (6)7682 (11)10 032 [7269–13 742] (7)
Dentistry956 (5)1137 (10)2133 (13)2683 (9)2491 (4)9400 [7170–12 262] (6)
    Orthodontic braces/retainers (oral laceration)0 (0)330 (3)1378 (8)1803 (6)1428 (2)4939 [3689–6594] (3)
    Toothbrushes (oral laceration)896 (5)300 (3)308 (2)156 (1)243 (<1)1902 [1090–3305] (1)
    Dental instruments (puncture, laceration)20 (<1)107 (1)238 (1)666 (2)710 (1)1741 [1033–2923] (1)
    Dental crowns/bridges (ingestion of broken device)40 (<1)381 (3)169 (1)19 (<1)42 (<1)652 [271–1562] (<1)
    Dental fillings (pain from loss of device)0 (0)20 (<1)30 (<1)38 (<1)22 (<1)110 [33–367] (<1)
Otolaryngology3947 (22)2784 (24)1962 (12)306 (1)352 (<1)9350 [4360–19 276] (6)
    Ear tubes (device-associated otitis media)3741 (21)2761 (24)1704 (10)245 (1)320 (<1)8771 [3854–19 119] (6)
    Hearing aids (device/part as unretrievable foreign body in ear canal)116 (1)23 (<1)247 (1)42 (<1)0 (0)428 [166–1102] (<1)
    Other ear/nose/throat devices (tympanic membrane puncture from ear medication dropper)89 (1)0 (0)10 (<1)20 (<1)32 (<1)151 [48–476] (<1)
General or plastic surgery1014 (6)923 (8)1228 (7)1389 (5)4092 (6)8646 [6122–12 119] (6)
        Incision/wound retention devices (incision/wound dehiscence from broken sutures, infected suture/staple site)808 (5)811 (7)1151 (7)932 (3)2362 (3)6063 [3620–10 038] (4)
    Medical/surgical instruments (laceration or puncture from scalpel, lancet, or suture needle)32 (<1)102 (1)0 (0)283 (1)1203 (2)1620 [819–3187] (1)
    Other devices (swelling or infection from occluded surgical drain)175 (1)10 (<1)77 (<1)173 (1)526 (1)962 [513–1799] (1)
Gastroenterology/urology3005 (17)696 (6)688 (4)750 (3)1603 (2)6740 [3180–13 897] (5)
    Urinary catheters (urinary retention with/without tract infection from occluded device, urinary tract hemorrhage)57 (<1)139 (1)60 (<1)49 (<1)277 (<1)582 [240–1411] (<1)
    Dialysis blood access devices (hemorrhage or infection at device insertion site)10 (<1)10 (<1)43 (<1)85 (<1)53 (<1)201 [85–473] (<1)
    Kidney dialysis systems (respiratory distress/chest pain while using device)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)43 (<1)23 (<1)66 [16–275] (<1)
    Other devices (severe pain with/without infection after stent placement)2928 (17)547 (5)585 (3)573 (2)1249 (2)5881 [2689–12 533] (4)
Neurology1267 (7)800 (7)1052 (6)1286 (4)1044 (1)5449 [1895–14 973] (4)
    Ventriculoperitoneal shunts (hydrocephalus or symptoms from device malfunction)1246 (7)800 (7)1001 (6)1258 (4)959 (1)5265 [1784–14 838] (4)
    Other devices21 (<1)0 (0)50 (<1)28 (<1)85 (<1)154 [53–446] (<1)
Cardiology793 (4)333 (3)249 (1)422 (1)142 (<1)1940 [765–4858] (1)
    Pacemakers, internal defibrillators (dyspnea, weakness, or syncope from device malfunction)33 (<1)20 (<1)33 (<1)74 (<1)27 (<1)188 [48–728] (<1)
    Other cardiovascular devices (chest/groin pain after cardiac catheter use or cardiovascular stent placement)760 (4)313 (3)216 (<1)348 (1)114 (<1)1742 [712–4217] (1)
Anesthesiology727 (4)187 (2)130 (1)416 (1)430 (1)1890 [954–3721] (1)
    Respiratory devices (contusion from striking or being struck by oxygen tube, dyspnea from occluded/displaced tracheostomy tube)727 (4)177 (2)120 (1)308 (1)280 (<1)1612 [728–3543] (1)
    Other devices0 (0)10 (<1)10 (<1)108 (<1)150 (<1)278 [88–874] (<1)
Orthopedics10 (<1)73 (1)184 (1)635 (2)527 (1)1429 [776–2624] (1)
    Orthopedic fixation devices (pain with/without infection)0 (0)73 (1)184 (1)518 (2)384 (1)1170 [550–2473] (1)
    Prosthetic devices (dislocation of prosthetic hip)10 (<1)0 (0)0 (0)116 (<1)0 (0)116 [15–890] (<1)
    Other devices0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)143 (<1)120 [17–865] (<1)
Radiology137 (1)120 (1)0 (0)0 (0)388 (1)645 [233–1773] (<1)
    Diagnostic/therapeutic radiation devices (contusion or laceration from striking or being struck by radiograph machine137 (1)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)379 (1)516 [157–1684] (<1)
    Other devices0 (0)120 (1)0 (0)0 (0)9 (<1)129 [20–833] (<1)
Total17 458 (100)11 348 (100)16 901 (100)28 691 (100)70 400 (100)144 799 [113 051–183 903] (100)
  • Estimates of <1200 may be potentially unstable.