TABLE 4

Associations Between Child and Military Characteristics and Child Well-being Problems, as Reported by Child and Parent/Caregiver (n = 1495)

VariableChild ReportedCaregiver Reported
Academic Engagement ProblemsAnxietyProblem BehaviorsEmotional DifficultiesEmotional DifficultiesPeer Functioning ProblemsFamily Functioning Problems
Overall (mean, SD)4.8 (3.3)1.9 (1.8)5.6 (7.9)11.5 (6.1)9.8 (6.6)1.8 (2.4)4.3 (3.2)
Military characteristicsβ coefficients (SE)
Active component (vs. Guard/Reserve)−0.21 (0.24)0.09 (0.13)0.36 (0.53)0.36 (0.44)−0.38 (0.46)−0.12 (0.17)−0.40 (0.20)
E5-E6 (mid grade enlisted) (vs. E1-E4)−0.76 (0.46)−0.01 (0.20)−1.96 (1.31)−0.98 (0.71)−1.28 (0.79)−0.68 (0.38)−0.73 (0.35)
E7-E9 (senior enlisted) (vs. E1-E4)−0.66 (0.47)−0.11 (0.21)−2.10 (1.30)−1.46 (0.74)−1.89 (0.81)−0.73 (0.39)−0.79 (0.36)
Officer (vs. E1-E4)−0.08 (0.26)−0.21 (0.22)−1.43 (1.32)−1.67 (0.77)−2.49 (0.82)a−0.85 (0.40)−0.77 (0.36)
Child and caregiver characteristicsβ coefficients (SE)
Child age (years)0.36 (0.06)a−0.15 (0.03)a0.87 (0.15)a−0.20 (0.12)−0.14 (0.12)−0.16 (0.04)a0.06 (0.05)
Female gender (child)−0.84 (0.19)a0.57 (0.11)a−1.83 (0.46)a−0.33 (0.36)−1.96 (0.36)a−0.40 (0.13)a−0.52 (0.16)a
Living in military housing (vs. rent)−0.41 (0.36)0.23 (0.20)−0.53 (0.89)−0.96 (0.64)−0.69 (0.63)−0.39 (0.23)−0.19 (0.30)
Owning home (vs. rent)−0.45 (0.33)−0.02 (0.17)−1.10 (0.85)−0.48 (0.56)−0.10 (0.56)−0.23 (0.21)−0.13 (0.26)
Caregiver employed−0.07 (0.21)−0.02 (0.12)0.34 (0.51)−0.23 (0.38)−0.66 (0.39)−0.22 (0.14)−0.20 (0.18)
Caregiver report of poor mental health0.11 (0.03)a0.05 (0.02)a0.14 (0.07)0.20 (0.05)a0.77 (0.06)a0.19 (0.02)a0.33 (0.03)a
Deployment experienceβ coefficients (SE)
Currently deployed−0.08 (0.26)−0.23 (0.15)−0.78 (0.58)−0.26 (0.47)−0.25 (0.47)−0.02 (0.17)0.08 (0.23)
Deployed once (vs. none)−0.01 (0.36)0.05 (0.22)−0.11 (1.08)0.71 (0.79)1.09 (0.73)0.31 (0.24)0.76 (0.33)
Deployed twice (vs. none)0.18 (0.41)0.22 (0.24)−0.30 (1.16)0.60 (0.84)0.73 (0.80)0.19 (0.26)0.60 (0.37)
Deployed three or more times (vs. none)0.06 (0.47)0.30 (0.28)0.14 (1.25)0.88 (0.95)0.51 (0.86)0.15 (0.27)0.56 (0.40)
Number of months parent deployed in last three years0.02 (0.02)−0.01 (0.01)0.03 (0.04)0.00 (0.03)0.06 (0.03)0.01 (0.01)0.02 (0.01)
  • Analyses adjusted for child race; caregiver gender, age, and education; military service (e.g., Army, Navy), and acceptance to Operation Purple®Camp, and for multiple comparison testing using a Bonferroni correction.

  • a P < .01.