TABLE 2

Description of Study Constructs and Domains

Construct/DomainRespondentMeasure, Citation, and ModificationsPsychometrics, Range (Cronbach's α)
Child and maternal well-being
    Academic engagementChildAcademic engagement32 was determined by using a 6-item scale that asks children about being late to school, being ready for class, and other related items. The tool is based on a 5-point scale, ranging from “none of the time” to “all of the time.”0–24 (0.83); a higher number indicated more difficulties
    AnxietyChildSCARED short form.23 The short form is a 5-item measure that assesses children's anxiety.0–10 (0.84); a higher number indicated more difficulties
    Behavior problemsChildProblem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS).24,33 The PBFS assesses children's problem behaviors in the previous 6 mo and is scored based on the number of times the behavior is reported, from “never” to “20 or more times.” Children 11–14 y were not asked about substance use and use of a weapon to hurt others. Used modifications made by the Teen Depression Awareness Study.320–79 (0.84); a higher number indicated more difficulties
    Total emotional difficultiesHCG, childThe SDQ.21 The SDQ is a brief behavioral screening questionnaire made up of 25 items among 5 scales of 5 items each, generalizing scores for conduct problems, hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, peer problems, and prosocial behavior; all but the last scale are summed to generate a total difficulties score.0–40 (0.83)
    Peer functioningHCGItems are based on the Pediatrics Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL)34 Parent Report for Teens 4.0. The adapted scale was created by the Teen Depression Awareness Project (TDAP). 25 TDAP dropped 2 items from the PedsQL social subscale and modified the response set from “never . . . always” to “none of the time . . . all of the time” to be consistent with other survey scales. The stem was also modified accordingly to ask how “often” instead of how “much” things were a problem. The new 3-item scale assessed children's ability to interact with other youth and had good internal consistency.0–12 (0.83)
    Family functioningHCGA 4-item scale created for the TDAP was used to assess children's ability to get along in the family. The 4 items were modeled after PedsQL.0–16 (0.83)
    Maternal mental healthHCGMental Health Inventory (MHI-5)35 is a well-validated and reliable measure of mental health. The MHI-5 is scored using a 5-point scale from “all of the time” to “none of the time.”0–20 (0.83)
Deployment-related experiences
    Child difficulties with deployment (during deployment)HCG, childNew scale was created by using confirmatory factor analysis that treated individual items categorically. Many of these deployment-experience items were developed as a result of a pilot analysis of Operation Purple participants.31 The measures were reviewed by military family researchers and NMFA program leaders for face and content validity. The HCG and child scales asked about difficulties the child experienced during deployment (eg, “dealing with life without his/her deployed parent”). The HCG scale is made up of 10 items. The child scale includes 9 items. Both scales are dichotomized (yes/no).HCG scale: 0–10 (0.83); child scale: 0–9 (0.83)
    Child difficulties with reintegration (post-deployment)HCG, childAs indicated above, new scales were created for this study. The HCG and child scales asked questions about difficulties with reintegration (after the deployed parent returned), such as “getting to know his/her deployed parent again.” Both scales were made up of 6 items, with responses dichotomized (yes/no).HCG scale: 0–6 (0.83); child scale: 0–6 (0.84)
  • NMFA indicates National Military Family Association. A higher number indicated more difficulties/problems for all scales.