TABLE 1

Estimations on Standardized Reading and Math Test Scores (Main Explanatory Variables)

VariableReadingMath
Pooled OLSPooled OLS Controlling for Previous Test ScoreChild Fixed EffectsPooled OLSPooled OLS Controlling for Previous Test ScoreChild Fixed Effects
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Base = only SNAP in the previous year
 OHP during test−0.154 [0.018]***−0.029 [0.011]**−0.008 [0.020]−0.202 [0.017]***−0.053 [0.011]***−0.017 [0.019]
 OHP before test−0.124 [0.017]***−0.039 [0.015]**−0.004 [0.019]−0.185 [0.017]***−0.088 [0.015]***−0.048 [0.018]***
 Screened-in and placed in OHP later−0.33a,b [0.043]***−0.16a,b [0.038]***−0.086 [0.043]**−0.326a,b [0.039]***−0.163a [0.036]***−0.063 [0.038]
 Screened-in but not placed in OHP−0.18b,c [0.007]***−0.06a,c [0.005]***−0.011 [0.006]*−0.172c [0.006]***−0.056b,c [0.005]***−0.012 [0.006]**
Previous test score0.712 [0.002]***0.736 [0.002]***
Age (as of September 1) (base = 8)
 9 y−0.075 [0.004]***−0.084 [0.022]***−0.019 [0.004]***−0.033 [0.003]***−0.07 [0.028]**0.014 [0.004]***
 10 y−0.105 [0.004]***−0.098 [0.022]***−0.033 [0.006]***−0.061 [0.004]***−0.107 [0.028]***0 [0.005]
 11 y−0.171 [0.006]***−0.099 [0.022]***−0.019 [0.008]**−0.124 [0.005]***−0.113 [0.028]***0.007 [0.007]
 12 y−0.164 [0.007]***−0.066 [0.022]***−0.004 [0.010]−0.132 [0.006]***−0.095 [0.028]***−0.002 [0.009]
 13 y−0.153 [0.007]***−0.049 [0.022]**0.012 [0.011]−0.14 [0.006]***−0.088 [0.028]***−0.017 [0.010]
Female0.151 [0.004]***0.046 [0.002]***−0.066 [0.004]***−0.013 [0.002]***
Race/ethnicity (base = white)
 Asian−0.075 [0.013]***0.004 [0.006]0.039 [0.013]***0.041 [0.006]***
 Black−0.302 [0.008]***−0.088 [0.004]***−0.387 [0.008]***−0.091 [0.004]***
 Hispanic−0.091 [0.009]***−0.028 [0.004]***−0.133 [0.009]***−0.035 [0.004]***
 Native American−0.161 [0.017]***−0.053 [0.008]***−0.186 [0.015]***−0.05 [0.007]***
Eligible for free school lunch (base = no)
 Yes−0.105 [0.006]***−0.031 [0.005]***0.005 [0.007]−0.079 [0.006]***−0.018 [0.004]***0.013 [0.006]**
 Missing−1.105 [0.230]***−0.562 [0.600]−0.104 [0.265]−0.876 [0.184]***−0.275 [0.292]−0.008 [0.167]
Retained in the previous school year−0.022 [0.014]0.29 [0.017]***0.203 [0.016]***−0.07 [0.013]***0.301 [0.015]***0.21 [0.015]***
Days suspended in the previous school year (base = none)
 1
 −0.236 [0.007]***−0.073 [0.006]***−0.007 [0.007]−0.202 [0.006]***−0.073 [0.005]***−0.003 [0.007]
 2
 −0.297 [0.009]***−0.105 [0.008]***−0.012 [0.010]−0.247 [0.009]***−0.091 [0.007]***−0.006 [0.009]
 3
 −0.296 [0.011]***−0.101 [0.009]***−0.009 [0.012]−0.256 [0.010]***−0.099 [0.008]***−0.007 [0.011]
 ≥4−0.413 [0.009]***−0.122 [0.006]***−0.009 [0.010]−0.359 [0.008]***−0.126 [0.006]***−0.027 [0.010]***
Days suspended, imputed0.032 [0.008]***−0.019 [0.062]−0.023 [0.009]**−0.068 [0.008]***−0.011 [0.080]−0.065 [0.009]***
English language proficiency (base = never an ELL)
 Entering−1.862 [0.045]***−0.409 [0.058]***−0.617 [0.071]***−1.123 [0.030]***−0.258 [0.041]***−0.194 [0.043]***
 Beginning−1.361 [0.020]***−0.303 [0.022]***−0.182 [0.037]***−0.867 [0.017]***−0.266 [0.015]***−0.074 [0.029]**
 Developing−0.667 [0.011]***−0.179 [0.008]***−0.011 [0.026]−0.452 [0.010]***−0.137 [0.007]***−0.043 [0.024]*
 Expanding−0.146 [0.010]***−0.05 [0.006]***0.036 [0.025]−0.047 [0.010]***−0.02 [0.005]***−0.002 [0.023]
 Bridging0.225 [0.011]***0.067 [0.007]***0.06 [0.025]**0.278 [0.012]***0.065 [0.007]***0.017 [0.024]
 Fully ELP0.439 [0.014]***0.141 [0.007]***0.102[0.026]***0.464 [0.015]***0.13 [0.007]***0.048 [0.024]**
Mother’s age0.003 [0.000]***0.001 [0.000]***0.003 [0.000]***0.001 [0.000]***
Mother’s age, imputed0.134 [0.025]***0.076 [0.016]***0.103 [0.024]***0.036 [0.015]**
Family structure (base = 2 parents)
 Single mother0.01 [0.005]*−0.001 [0.003]−0.003 [0.008]0.022 [0.005]***0.004 [0.002]*−0.008 [0.007]
 Single father−0.002 [0.010]−0.002 [0.005]0.004 [0.015]0.042 [0.010]***0.012 [0.005]***−0.009 [0.014]
 Missing−0.125 [0.084]−0.039 [0.056]−0.189 [0.082]**−0.058 [0.054]
No. of children (base = 1)
 2−0.017 [0.007]**0.001 [0.004]0.015 [0.010]0.028 [0.006]***0.011 [0.003]***0.005 [0.009]
 3−0.047 [0.007]***−0.008 [0.004]**−0.001 [0.012]0.031 [0.007]***0.019 [0.003]***0.005 [0.011]
 4−0.08 [0.008]***−0.015 [0.004]***−0.006 [0.013]0.018 [0.008]**0.015 [0.004]***0.003 [0.012]
 ≥5−0.152 [0.010]***−0.033 [0.005]***−0.018 [0.016]−0.023 [0.009]**0.014 [0.004]***0.003 [0.014]
No. of children, imputed0.009 [0.010]−0.007 [0.006]0.013 [0.014]−0.011 [0.009]−0.01 [0.006]*0.023 [0.013]*
Wage in previous year (base = zero)
 <2000−0.008 [0.007]0.001 [0.005]0.003 [0.006]−0.011 [0.006]*−0.002 [0.004]0.005 [0.006]
 2–60000.024 [0.006]***0.01 [0.004]**0.005 [0.006]0.022 [0.006]***0.005 [0.004]0.01 [0.005]*
 6–10 0000.018 [0.007]***0.003 [0.004]−0.001 [0.006]0.016 [0.006]***0.006 [0.004]0.005 [0.006]
 10–15 0000.034 [0.006]***0.005 [0.004]0.003 [0.006]0.04 [0.006]***0.013 [0.004]***0.011 [0.006]*
 15–20 0000.037 [0.007]***0.009 [0.004]**0.008 [0.007]0.043 [0.006]***0.007 [0.004]*0.006 [0.006]
 20–30 0000.054 [0.006]***0.011 [0.004]***0.005 [0.007]0.064 [0.006]***0.014 [0.003]***0.006 [0.006]
 30–40 0000.086 [0.008]***0.024 [0.005]***0.009 [0.008]0.095 [0.007]***0.026 [0.004]***0.011 [0.007]
 ≥40 0000.123 [0.008]***0.033 [0.004]***0.006 [0.009]0.139 [0.008]***0.039 [0.004]***0.015 [0.008]*
Parent incarcerated in the past 15 y−0.075 [0.008]***−0.032 [0.004]***−0.066 [0.007]***−0.029 [0.004]***
Parent incarcerated0.005 [0.010]0.008 [0.006]0.014 [0.010]0.01 [0.009]0.014 [0.005]**0.01 [0.009]
Constant−0.239 [0.020]***0.005 [0.067]−0.628 [0.109]***−0.215 [0.020]***0.014 [0.085]−0.627 [0.095]***
Adjusted R20.17490.60420.74760.18890.62810.7611
N526 102348 430526 102528 810350 536528 810
No. of clusters (mothers)114 79693 611114 796115 16193 913115 161
  • ELL, English language learners; ELP, English language proficient; SI = CPS investigation. *P < .1; **P < .05; ***P < .01. Robust and clustered SEs according to mother in brackets. All estimations include school fixed effects and year fixed effects, but they are not presented in the table due to space limit.

  • a Differs significantly from OHP/during test, at P < .05.

  • b Differs significantly from OHP/before test, at P < .05.

  • c Differs significantly from SI/placed OHP later, at P < .05.