TABLE 3

Bivariate Associations With Adolescents’ Smoking Trajectory Class

Never Smoker n = 123Early Regular n = 24Early Experimenter n = 94Late Experimenter n = 165P
Adolescent demographics
 Gender, n (%).871
  Male55 (44.7)12 (50.0)47 (50.0)80 (48.5)
  Female68 (55.3)12 (50.0)47 (50.0)85 (51.5)
 Race, n (%).100
  Non-Hispanic white107 (87.0)23 (95.8)74 (78.7)146 (88.5)
  Nonwhite16 (13.0)1 (4.2)20 (21.3)19 (11.5)
 Baseline age, mean (SD)13.6 (1.5)16.2 (1.1)14.9 (1.4)14.0 (1.5)<.001
Parent demographics
 Gender, n (%).665
  Male29 (23.6)4 (17.7)16 (17.1)36 (21.8)
  Female94 (76.4)20 (83.3)78 (82.9)129 (78.2)
 Race, n (%).050
  White104 (84.6)23 (95.8)75 (79.8)149 (88.5)
  Nonwhite19 (15.4)1 (4.2)19 (20.2)16 (11.5)
 Baseline age, mean (SD)40.0 (1.8)39.3 (1.8)39.1 (2.0)39.7 (1.9).005
 Marital status, n (%)<.001
  Married99 (80.5)10 (41.7)51 (54.2)134 (81.2)
  Unmarried24 (19.5)14 (58.3)43 (45.7)31 (18.8)
 Educational attainment, n (%).003
  ≥College30 (24.4)1 (4.2)7 (7.4)32 (19.4)
  <College93 (75.6)23 (95.8)87 (92.6)133 (80.6)
 Household income, n (%).008
  <$60 000/y57 (46.3)15 (62.5)52 (55.3)59 (35.8)
  ≥$60 000/y66 (53.7)9 (37.5)42 (44.7)106 (64.2)
Parental smoking
 Smoking status, n (%)<.001
  Current, dependent9 (7.4)10 (41.7)24 (26.1)17 (10.4)
  Current, nondependent7 (5.7)6 (25.0)14 (15.2)20 (12.3)
  Former daily or weekly smoker36 (29.5)3 (12.5)28 (30.4)59 (36.2)
  Nonsmoker69 (57.0)5 (20.8)26 (28.3)67 (41.1)
 Cigarettes/d, mean (SD)a8.4 (12.0)15.7 (13.5)13.0 (11.0)11.2 (15.2).012
 Years of exposure before baseline by parents’ baseline smoking status, mean (SD)
  Current, dependent0.46 (2.2)4.8 (6.6)2.1 (4.7)0.7 (2.8).047
  Current, nondependent0.34 (1.8)1.8 (3.9)1.1 (3.2)1.0 (3.2).030
  Former daily or weekly1.0 (2.9)0.2 (1.0)1.7 (4.0)1.3 (3.3).314
  • Some cells do not at up to the total sample size due to sporadic missing data for <5% of participants for individual variables.

  • a Although the main effect for parental cigarettes smoked per day was statistically significant, no pairwise mean comparisons of adolescent smoking trajectories differed at P < .05.