TABLE 1

Sample Distribution and the Prevalence of SSB Intake During Infancy and Obesity at Age 6 Years by Baseline Maternal and Child Characteristics

Characteristics at BaselineN (%)aPrevalence of Any SSB Intake During Infancy, % (95% CI)Prevalence of Obesity at Age 6 Years, % (95% CI)
Total1189 (100.0)25.9 (23.0 to 28.7)10.8 (9.0 to 12.5)
Child’s gender
 Male595 (50.0)24.7 (20.8 to 28.7)9.9 (7.5 to 12.3)
 Female594 (50.0)27.0 (23.1 to 30.9)11.6 (9.0 to 14.2)
Child’s birth weightb
 ≤4000 g1036 (87.1)25.8 (22.7 to 28.9)9.9 (8.1 to 11.8)
 >4000 g153 (12.9)26.4 (18.7 to 34.1)16.3 (10.5 to 22.2)
Introduction to solid foods before 4 monthsb,c
 No651 (54.8)17.9 (14.5 to 21.2)8.9 (6.7 to 11.2)
 Yes538 (45.2)35.6 (30.9 to 40.3)13.0 (10.1 to 15.9)
Breastfeeding durationb,c
 <6 months578 (48.6)31.2 (26.8 to 35.5)13.1 (10.4 to 15.9)
 ≥6 months611 (51.4)20.9 (17.4 to 24.3)8.5 (6.3 to 10.7)
Maternal ageb,c
 18–24 years161 (13.5)48.0 (39.4 to 56.7)15.5 (9.9 to 21.1)
 25–29 years395 (33.2)24.7 (19.8 to 29.6)9.1 (6.3 to 12.0)
 30–34 years384 (32.3)24.0 (19.2 to 28.8)11.7 (8.5 to 14.9)
 ≥35 years249 (20.9)16.3 (11.2 to 21.4)8.8 (5.3 to 12.4)
Maternal race/ethnicityb,c
 White, non-Hispanic1046 (88.0)24.9 (22.0 to 27.9)10.0 (8.2 to 11.8)
 Black, non-Hispanic40 (3.4)46.9 (28.8 to 65.1)27.9 (13.9 to 41.9)
 Hispanic57 (4.8)35.7 (21.8 to 49.5)19.5 (9.1 to 29.9)
 Other, non-Hispanic46 (3.9)16.7 (4.0 to 29.4)2.3 (−2.1 to 6.7)
Maternal educationb,c
 High school or less192 (16.1)36.5 (28.9 to 44.1)19.8 (14.1 to 25.5)
 Some college414 (34.8)32.1 (27.0 to 37.3)11.9 (8.7 to 15.0)
 College graduate583 (49.0)17.9 (14.5 to 21.4)7.0 (4.9 to 9.1)
Marital statusb,c
 Not married182 (15.3)42.1 (34.2 to 50.1)18.0 (12.3 to 23.8)
 Married1007 (84.7)22.9 (19.9 to 26.0)9.4 (7.6 to 11.3)
Income-to-poverty ratiob,c
 <185%399 (33.6)34.4 (29.1 to 39.7)15.0 (11.5 to 18.5)
 185%–349%451 (37.9)24.9 (20.5 to 29.4)9.3 (6.6 to 12.0)
 ≥350%339 (28.5)17.1 (12.5 to 21.7)7.7 (4.8 to 10.5)
Prepregnancy weight statusb
 Underweight and normal weight (BMI <25.0)582 (48.9)24.8 (20.7 to 28.9)5.9 (3.9 to 7.8)
 Overweight (BMI 25 to <30)307 (25.8)23.5 (18.4 to 28.5)13.6 (9.8 to 17.5)
 Obese (BMI ≥30)300 (25.2)30.4 (24.2 to 36.6)17.3 (13.0 to 21.7)
  • From the IFPS II (2005–2007) and Y6FU study (2012). SSBs during infancy included juice drinks, soft drinks, soda, sweet tea, Kool-Aid (Kraft foods, West Plains, NY), etc. Obesity was defined as gender-specific BMI-for-age ≥95th percentile on the 2000 CDC growth charts.16

  • a Percentages may not add up to 100% because of rounding.

  • b P < .05 for χ2 tests that compared the prevalence of obesity at age 6 years across categories.

  • c P < .05 for χ2 test that compared the prevalence of any SSB intake during infancy across categories.