TABLE 19

Key Action Statement 4: Clinicians may recommend surgery and laser therapy as treatment options in managing selected IHs (grade C, moderate recommendation).

Aggregate Evidence QualityGrade C
BenefitsEarly surgical intervention after infancy corrects residual deformities before the child’s self-esteem develops
Risks, harm, costRisk of surgical complications and general anesthesia; costs associated with operative intervention, anesthesia, and postoperative care
Benefits-harm assessmentPreponderance of benefit
Intentional vaguenessNone
Role of patient preferenceSignificant
ExclusionsChildren with a nonproblematic IH
StrengthModerate recommendation
Key references20,142144