TABLE 1

Demographic Characteristics of Participants in This Study

Discovery SetValidation Set
Controls, n = 37DG Cases, n = 50Total, N = 87Controls, n = 107DG Cases, n = 156Total, N = 263
Age, y, mean ± SD9.4 ± 1.79.3 ± 2.29.3 ± 2.09.3 ± 1.99.4 ± 1.99.4 ± 1.9
Annual household income, n (%)
 Less than average for state10 (30.3)9 (18.0)19 (22.9)17 (16.2)28 (18.2)45 (17.4)
 Average for state1 (3.0)10 (20.0)11 (13.3)22 (21.0)29 (18.8)51 (19.7)
 Greater than average for state22 (66.7)31 (62.0)53 (63.9)66 (62.9)97 (63.0)163 (62.9)
Breast milk exposure, n (%)
 0 (none)11 (29.7)15 (30.0)26 (29.9)24 (22.4)51 (32.7)75 (28.5)
 1 (minimal)4 (10.8)18 (36.0)22 (25.3)13 (12.1)57 (36.5)70 (26.6)
 2 (moderate)6 (16.2)4 (8.0)10 (11.5)27 (25.2)22 (14.1)49 (18.6)
 3 (exclusive)16 (43.2)13 (26.0)29 (33.3)43 (40.2)26 (16.7)69 (26.2)
Highest parental education, n (%)
 High school education or GED or less2 (6.1)1 (2.0)3 (3.7)9 (8.7)20 (12.9)29 (11.2)
 Some college or technical education or associate’s degree8 (24.2)14 (28.6)22 (26.8)28 (26.9)35 (22.6)63 (24.3)
 Bachelor’s degree9 (27.3)15 (30.6)24 (29.3)30 (28.8)49 (31.6)79 (30.5)
 Graduate degree14 (42.4)19 (38.8)33 (40.2)37 (35.6)51 (32.9)88 (34.0)
Race and ethnicity, n (%)
 White, non-Hispanic origin34 (91.9)45 (90.0)79 (90.8)93 (86.9)143 (91.7)236 (89.7)
 White, Hispanic origin0 (0.0)1 (2.0)1 (1.1)6 (5.6)3 (1.9)9 (3.4)
 African American, non-Hispanic origin1 (2.7)2 (4.0)3 (3.4)2 (1.9)4 (2.6)6 (2.3)
 Other2 (5.4)2 (4.0)4 (4.6)6 (5.6)6 (3.8)12 (4.6)
Sex, n (%)
 Female13 (35.1)20 (40.0)33 (37.9)52 (48.6)73 (46.8)125 (47.5)
 Male24 (64.9)30 (60.0)54 (62.1)55 (51.4)83 (53.2)138 (52.5)
US region of residence, n (%)
 North-central18 (48.6)23 (46.0)41 (47.1)58 (54.2)92 (59.0)150 (57.0)
 South17 (45.9)24 (48.0)41 (47.1)41 (38.3)56 (35.9)97 (36.9)
 West2 (5.4)3 (6.0)5 (5.7)8 (5.1)8 (5.1)16 (6.1)
  • GED, General Educational Development.