TABLE 4

Association of Infant Feeding With BMI z Score and Overweight Risk at 12 Months of Age in the CHILD Cohort

NBMI z Score at 12 MoOverweight at 12 Mo
Mean ± SDCrudeAdjustedaMutual Feeding Adjustmentbn (%)Adjusteda
β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
BF exclusivity at 3 moN = 2536N = 2353N = 1972N = 2353
 No BF3340.56 ± 1.080.52 (0.39 to 0.65)c0.40 (0.27 to 0.54)c32 (9.6)3.44 (1.95 to 6.09)c
 Partial BF with formula6460.36 ± 1.080.32 (0.22 to 0.42)c0.24 (0.14 to 0.35)c0.14 (0.03 to 0.26)c41 (6.3)1.97 (1.18 to 3.28)c
 Exclusive BF after hospital4270.11 ± 1.040.07 (−0.05 to 0.19)0.05 (−0.07 to 0.17)0.04 (−0.08 to 0.16)15 (3.5)0.87 (0.43 to 1.79)
 Exclusive BF11290.04 ± 1.040.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)36 (3.2)1.00 (reference)
BF mode at 3 moN = 2452N = 2278N = 1903N = 2278
 No BF3270.56 ± 1.080.58 (0.44 to 0.72)c0.45 (0.30 to 0.59)c31 (9.5)4.49 (2.23 to 9.07)c
 Partial BF with formula6260.36 ± 1.080.38 (0.26 to 0.49)c0.28 (0.16 to 0.39)c0.17 (0.04 to 0.30)c40 (6.4)2.57 (1.35 to 4.91)c
 Exclusive BF, some expressed8240.14 ± 1.000.16 (0.05 to 0.27)c0.12 (0.01 to 0.23)c0.10 (−0.01 to 0.21)31 (3.8)1.53 (0.78 to 2.98)
 Exclusive BF, all direct675−0.02 ± 1.060.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)17 (2.5)1.00 (reference)
BF exclusivity at 6 moN = 2474N = 2294N = 1790N = 2294
 No BF5520.51 ± 1.070.54 (0.41 to 0.67)c0.44 (0.30 to 0.57)c46 (8.3)3.20 (1.58 to 6.51)c
 Partial BF with formula6390.30 ± 1.080.34 (0.21 to 0.46)c0.25 (0.13 to 0.38)c0.19 (0.06 to 0.32)c39 (6.1)2.03 (1.00 to 4.11)c
 Partial BF without formula8320.07 ± 1.030.10 (−0.02 to 0.22)0.07 (−0.05 to 0.19)0.06 (−0.06 to 0.18)27 (3.2)0.93 (0.44 to 1.97)
 Exclusive BF451−0.04 ± 1.060.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)11 (2.4)1.00 (reference)
Introduction of solid foods, moN = 2447N = 2271N = 2271N = 2271
 <44280.33 ± 1.010.27 (0.14 to 0.40)c0.16 (0.02 to 0.29)c0.07 (−0.07 to 0.20)19 (4.4)1.09 (0.56 to 2.15)
 4–<54800.31 ± 1.110.24 (0.12 to 0.37)c0.17 (0.04 to 0.29)c0.12 (−0.01 to 0.25)31 (6.5)1.45 (0.79 to 2.68)
 5–<68950.18 ± 1.090.12 (0.01 to 0.23)c0.07 (−0.03 to 0.18)0.05 (−0.06 to 0.16)48 (5.4)1.30 (0.75 to 2.25)
 ≥66440.06 ± 1.050.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)22 (3.4)1.00 (reference)
Duration of any BF, moN = 2543N = 2357N = 2271N = 2357
 Never BF890.42 ± 1.070.41 (0.18 to 0.63)c0.27 (0.05 to 0.50)c0.28 (0.05 to 0.51)c6 (6.7)2.58 (1.00 to 6.62)c
 <32450.62 ±1.080.60 (0.46 to 0.75)c0.48 (0.33 to 0.64)c0.48 (0.32 to 0.64)c26 (10.6)4.06 (2.21 to 7.45)c
 3–<62750.38 ± 1.020.37 (0.23 to 0.51)c0.29 (0.14 to 0.43)c0.32 (0.16 to 0.47)c16 (5.8)1.99 (1.02 to 3.86)c
 6–<127650.28 ± 1.050.27 (0.17 to 0.36)c0.19 (0.09 to 0.28)c0.18 (0.08 to 0.28)c41 (5.4)1.64 (0.98 to 2.74)
 ≥1211690.01 ± 1.060.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)36 (3.1)1.00 (reference)
  • N’s differ between models because of differences in the number of infants with complete feeding data for the different feeding exposures. Sensitivity analyses in which we applied multiple imputation of missing data and propensity score weighting are shown in Supplemental Table 10. BF, breastfeeding; OR, odds ratio. —, not applicable.

  • a Adjusted for study site, maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, ethnicity, education, marital status, smoking during pregnancy, mode of delivery, parity, infant sex, gestational age, and birth wt.

  • b Adjusted for covariates plus introduction of solid foods (models A, B, E) and duration of any BF (models A, B, C, D). Models A, B, C (for BF infants only, to address further BF after 3 or 6 mo), and D.

  • c Significant associations (P < .05).