TABLE 5

Association of Infant Feeding With Weight Gain Velocity and Risk of Rapid Weight Gain in the First Year of Life in the CHILD Cohort

NWt Gain Velocity: Change in WFA z Score From Birth to 1 yRapid Wt Gain: Velocity >0.67
Mean ± SDCrudeAdjustedaMutual Feeding Adjustmentbn (%)Adjusteda
β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
BF exclusivity at 3 moN = 25272358N = 1975N = 2358
 No BF3370.21 ± 1.140.49 (0.36 to 0.62)c0.44 (0.32 to 0.56)c120 (35.6)2.70 (1.93 to 3.78)c
 Partial BF with formula6420.10 ± 1.020.38 (0.28 to 0.48)c0.30 (0.21 to 0.39)c0.18 (0.08 to 0.28)c170 (26.5)1.63 (1.24 to 2.12)c
 Exclusive BF after hospital428−0.23 ± 1.020.06 (−0.06 to 0.17)−0.02 (−0.13 to 0.08)−0.02 (−0.13 to 0.08)77 (18.0)0.93 (0.67 to 1.29)
 Exclusive BF1120−0.28 ± 1.030.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)193 (17.2)1.00 (reference)
BF mode at 3 moN = 2440N = 2281N = 1905N = 2281
 No BF3280.21 ± 1.140.58 (0.45 to 0.72)c0.51 (0.38 to 0.64)c115 (35.1)2.91 (2.00 to 4.24)c
 Partial BF with formula6220.10 ± 1.010.48 (0.36 to 0.59)c0.38 (0.27 to 0.48)c0.25 (0.14 to 0.36)c164 (26.4)1.83 (1.34 to 2.49)c
 Exclusive BF, some expressed819−0.17 ± 1.020.21 (0.10 to 0.31)c0.14 (0.05 to 0.24)c0.12 (0.02 to 0.21)c157 (19.2)1.22 (0.90 to 1.66)
 Exclusive BF, all direct671−0.37 ± 1.030.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)104 (15.5)1.00 (reference)
BF exclusivity at 6 moN = 2464N = 2294N = 1790N = 2294
 No BF5510.20 ± 1.090.54 (0.41 to 0.67)c0.51 (0.39 to 0.63)c179 (32.5)2.34 (1.64 to 3.35)c
 Partial BF with formula638−0.02 ± 1.000.31 (0.19 to 0.44)c0.29 (0.18 to 0.40)c0.19 (0.08 to 0.31)c155 (24.3)1.54 (1.10 to 2.17)c
 Partial BF without formula827−0.27 ± 1.020.06 (−0.06 to 0.18)0.09 (−0.02 to 0.19)0.07 (−0.04 to 0.17)136 (16.4)0.92 (0.66 to 1.30)
 Exclusive BF448−0.34 ± 1.080.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)76 (17.0)1.00 (reference)
Introduction of solid foods, moN = 2438N = 2276N = 2276N = 2276
 <4428−0.02 ± 1.090.19 (0.06 to 0.32)c0.18 (0.06 to 0.30)c0.07 (−0.05 to 0.19)112 (26.2)1.43 (1.01 to 2.01)c
 4–<5483−0.01 ± 1.090.20 (0.07 to 0.32)c0.21 (0.10 to 0.32)c0.15 (0.04 to 0.26)c140 (29.0)1.86 (1.36 to 2.56)c
 5–<6886−0.15 ± 1.040.06 (−0.05 to 0.17)0.05 (−0.04 to 0.15)0.02 (−0.07 to 0.12)165 (18.6)0.92 (0.69 to 1.23)
 ≥6641−0.21 ± 1.030.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)122 (19.0)1.00 (reference)
Duration of any BF, moN = 2534N = 2362N = 2276N = 2362
 Never BF910.09 ± 1.060.40 (0.18 to 0.62)c0.44 (0.24 to 0.64)c0.43 (0.23 to 0.64)c29 (31.9)2.59 (1.46 to 4.59)c
 <32460.26 ± 1.160.57 (0.43 to 0.71)c0.53 (0.40 to 0.67)c0.52 (0.38 to 0.66)c91 (37.0)3.36 (2.32 to 4.86)c
 3–<62710.17 ± 1.000.49 (0.35 to 0.62)c0.42 (0.30 to 0.55)c0.42 (0.28 to 0.55)c76 (28.0)1.96 (1.37 to 2.80)c
 6–<12766−0.04 ± 1.010.28 (0.18 to 0.37)c0.26 (0.18 to 0.35)c0.25 (0.17 to 0.34)c181 (23.6)1.70 (1.30 to 2.20)c
 ≥121160−0.31 ± 1.030.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)0.00 (reference)186 (16.0)1.00 (reference)
  • N’s differ between models because of differences in the number of infants with complete feeding data for the different feeding exposures. Sensitivity analyses in which we applied multiple imputation of missing data and propensity score weighting are shown in Supplemental Table 10. BF, breastfeeding; OR, odds ratio. —, not applicable.

  • a Adjusted for study site, maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, ethnicity, education, marital status, smoking during pregnancy, mode of delivery, parity, infant sex, gestational age, and birth wt.

  • b Adjusted for covariates plus introduction of solid foods (models A, B, E) and duration of any BF (models A, B, C, D). Models A, B, C (for BF infants only, to address further BF after 3 or 6 mo), and D.

  • c Significant associations (P < .05).