Outcomes and Treatment Characteristics Comparing Those Receiving a Single Opioid (Morphine Versus Methadone) According to a Formal Weaning Protocol, Accounting for Regional Variation

Morphine Only, N = 232 (60.6%)Methadone Only, N = 151 (39.4%)P
 Opioid treatment days (mean, CI)a15.6 (13.0–18.1)16.2 (12.7–19.6).79
 Day of life of discharge (mean, CI)21.6 (19.9–23.4)21.5 (19.2–23.8).9
Treatment characteristics
 Treated with phenobarbital (%, CI)37.1% (21.7–55.7)22.5% (9.1–45.8).29
 Phenobarbital treatment days (mean, CI)19.6 (17.2–22.1)12.0 (8.0–15.95).002
 Received multiple NAS treatment drugs (%, CI)39.5% (21.6–60.6)23.2% (8.2–50.4).31
 Number of NAS treatment drugs (N, %)b
  1137 (59.1%)116 (76.8%)
  278 (33.6%)34 (22.5%)
  316 (6.9%)1 (0.7%)
  41 (0.4%)0 (0.0%)
  • Mean and 95% CI for each continuous variable are reported as least squares means derived from mixed models. Estimated probabilities and 95% CIs reported as percentages for categorical variables. All statistical comparisons reported from mixed models with treatment site as the random effect and treatment type (methadone or morphine) as the fixed effect. No confounders were statistically significant (P < .05) in the models. Confounders tested included birth wt, race, any prenatal care, insurance status, marital status, maternal methadone use.

  • a Model includes gestational age as statistically significant covariate (P = .025). No other factors significant.

  • b Actual number of NAS treatment drugs provided by treatment group, not accounting for infants clustering within treatment site.