TABLE 4

Outcomes Associated With Buprenorphine Exposures Among Adolescents 13–19 Years Old by Selected Reason for Exposure and Type of Exposure, NPDS 2007–2016

CharacteristicsMisuse and/or AbuseSuspected Suicide
Single-Substance, n (%a)Multiple-Substance, n (%a)Subtotal, n (%a)Single-Substance, n (%a)Multiple-Substance, n (%a)Subtotal, n (%a)
Sex
 Male350 (61.8)126 (65.3)476 (62.7)23 (37.1)38 (43.2)61 (40.7)
 Female214 (37.8)67 (34.7)281 (37.0)38 (61.3)50 (56.8)88 (58.7)
 Unknown2 (0.4)0 (0.0)2 (0.3)1 (1.6)0 (0.0)1 (0.7)
Management site
 Patient already in (en route to) HCF when PCC called259 (45.8)125 (64.8)384 (50.6)48 (77.4)81 (92.0)129 (86.0)
 Patient was referred by PCC to an HCF179 (31.6)33 (17.1)212 (27.9)14 (22.6)6 (6.8)20 (13.3)
 Managed on site (non-HCF)110 (19.4)30 (15.5)140 (18.4)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Unknown11 (1.9)3 (1.6)14 (1.8)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Other7 (1.2)2 (1.0)9 (1.2)0 (0.0)1 (1.1)1 (0.7)
Level of HCF care received
 No HCF treatment received128 (22.6)35 (18.1)163 (21.5)0 (0.0)1 (1.1)1 (0.7)
 Treated or evaluated and released216 (38.2)66 (34.2)282 (37.2)20 (32.3)14 (15.9)34 (22.7)
 Admitted73 (12.9)63 (32.6)136 (17.9)33 (53.2)65 (73.9)98 (65.3)
  Admitted to CCU29 (5.1)46 (23.8)75 (9.9)13 (21.0)35 (39.8)48 (32.0)
  Admitted to non-CCU30 (5.3)11 (5.7)41 (5.4)12 (19.4)14 (15.9)26 (17.3)
  Admitted to psychiatric facility14 (2.5)6 (3.1)20 (2.6)8 (12.9)16 (18.2)24 (16.0)
 Other149 (26.3)29 (15.0)178 (23.5)9 (14.5)8 (9.1)17 (11.3)
Medical outcome
 No effect42 (7.4)15 (7.8)57 (7.5)13 (21.0)8 (9.1)21 (14.0)
 Minor effect213 (37.6)57 (29.5)270 (35.6)21 (33.9)20 (22.7)41 (27.3)
 Serious outcome92 (16.3)64 (33.2)156 (20.6)17 (27.4)47 (53.4)64 (42.7)
  Moderate effect87 (15.4)54 (28.0)141 (18.6)15 (24.2)36 (40.9)51 (34.0)
  Major effect5 (0.9)8 (4.1)13 (1.7)2 (3.2)10 (11.4)12 (8.0)
  Death0 (0.0)2 (1.0)2 (0.3)0 (0.0)1 (1.1)1 (0.7)
 Not followed (at most minimal clinical effects possible)100 (17.7)28 (14.5)128 (16.9)3 (4.8)3 (3.4)6 (4.0)
 Unable to follow (potentially toxic exposure)119 (21.0)29 (15.0)148 (19.5)8 (12.9)10 (11.4)18 (12.0)
Total566 (100.0)193 (100.0)759 (100.0)62 (100.0)88 (100.0)150 (100.0)
  • a Percentages may not sum to 100.0% because of rounding.