TABLE 3

Characteristics of Buprenorphine Exposures Among Children Younger Than 6 Years Old by Type of Exposure and Selected Product Formulation, NPDS 2007–2016

CharacteristicsSingle-Substance ExposuresMultiple-Substance Exposures
Subtotala, n (%b)Tablet, n (%b)Film, n (%b)Subtotala, n (%b)Tablet, n (%b)Film, n (%b)
Management site
 Patient already in (en route to) HCF when PCC called4846 (51.8)3083 (50.2)1143 (59.1)250 (71.2)155 (67.7)45 (77.6)
 Patient was referred by PCC to an HCF3636 (38.9)2502 (40.7)652 (33.7)88 (25.1)66 (28.8)13 (22.4)
 Managed on site (not at an HCF)784 (8.4)503 (8.2)114 (5.9)11 (3.1)6 (2.6)0 (0.0)
 Other39 (0.4)23 (0.4)9 (0.5)1 (0.3)1 (0.4)0 (0.0)
 Unknown53 (0.6)34 (0.6)16 (0.8)1 (0.3)1 (0.4)0 (0.0)
Level of HCF care received
 No HCF treatment received876 (9.4)560 (9.1)139 (7.2)13 (3.7)8 (3.5)0 (0.0)
 Treated or evaluated and released2771 (29.6)1876 (30.5)563 (29.1)106 (30.2)80 (34.9)14 (24.1)
 Admitted4460 (47.7)2851 (46.4)1012 (52.3)209 (59.5)125 (54.6)40 (69.0)
  Admitted to CCU2166 (23.1)1370 (22.3)505 (26.1)121 (34.5)80 (34.9)17 (29.3)
  Admitted to non-CCU2292 (24.5)1479 (24.1)507 (26.2)88 (25.1)45 (19.7)23 (39.7)
  Admitted to psychiatric facilityc2 (0.0)2 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Other1251 (13.4)858 (14.0)220 (11.4)23 (6.6)16 (7.0)4 (6.9)
Medical outcome
 No effect2223 (23.8)1367 (22.2)504 (26.1)76 (21.7)51 (22.3)11 (19.0)
 Minor effect3429 (36.6)2275 (37.0)718 (37.1)129 (36.8)88 (38.4)22 (37.9)
 Serious outcome1965 (21.0)1291 (21.0)416 (21.5)114 (32.5)66 (28.8)21 (36.2)
  Moderate effect1783 (19.1)1166 (19.0)386 (20.0)99 (28.2)58 (25.3)19 (32.8)
  Major effect175 (1.9)121 (2.0)28 (1.4)15 (4.3)8 (3.5)2 (3.4)
  Death7 (0.1)4 (0.1)2 (0.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Not followed (at most minimal clinical effects possible)507 (5.4)340 (5.5)84 (4.3)13 (3.7)10 (4.4)1 (1.7)
 Unable to follow (potentially toxic exposure)1234 (13.2)872 (14.2)212 (11.0)19 (5.4)14 (6.1)3 (5.2)
Total9358 (100.0)6145 (100.0)1934 (100.0)351 (100.0)229 (100.0)58 (100.0)
  • a Subtotal includes patch, injection, and unknown formulation.

  • b Percentages may not sum to 100.0% because of rounding error.

  • c Potentially miscoded cases given children’s young age.