TABLE 1

Characteristics of Buprenorphine Exposures Among Children 19 Years Old and Younger by Age Group, NPDS 2007–2016

Characteristics<6 y, n (%a)6–12 y, n (%a)13–19 y, n (%a)Total, n (%a)
Sex
 Male5083 (52.4)181 (57.5)721 (57.6)5985 (53.1)
 Female4560 (47.0)134 (42.5)527 (42.1)5221 (46.3)
 Unknown66 (0.7)0 (0.0)3 (0.2)69 (0.6)
Formulation
 Tablet6374 (65.7)204 (64.8)841 (67.2)7419 (65.8)
 Film1992 (20.5)60 (19.0)298 (23.8)2350 (20.8)
 Injection or patch153 (1.6)11 (3.5)11 (0.9)175 (1.6)
 Unknown1190 (12.3)40 (12.7)101 (8.1)1331 (11.8)
Exposure site
 Residence9460 (97.4)296 (94.0)1070 (85.5)10 826 (96.0)
 Other148 (1.5)16 (5.1)93 (7.4)257 (2.3)
 Unknown101 (1.0)3 (1.0)88 (7.0)192 (1.7)
Reason for exposure
 Unintentional9628 (99.2)262 (83.2)163 (13.0)10 053 (89.2)
  General9548 (98.3)181 (57.5)53 (4.2)9782 (86.8)
  Therapeutic error54 (0.6)56 (17.8)93 (7.4)203 (1.8)
  Other or unknown26 (0.3)25 (7.9)17 (1.4)68 (0.6)
 Intentional8 (0.1)29 (9.2)964 (77.1)1001 (8.9)
  Misuse and/or abuse2 (0.0)b16 (5.1)759 (60.7)777 (6.9)
  Suspected suicide5 (0.1)b3 (1.0)150 (12.0)158 (1.4)
  Unknown1 (0.0)10 (3.2)55 (4.4)66 (0.6)
 Other37 (0.4)1 (0.3)98 (7.8)136 (1.2)
 Unknown36 (0.4)23 (7.3)26 (2.1)85 (0.8)
Management site
 Patient already in (en route to) HCF when PCC called5096 (52.5)119 (37.8)622 (49.7)5837 (51.8)
 Patient was referred by PCC to an HCF3724 (38.4)120 (38.1)346 (27.7)4190 (37.2)
 Managed on site (not at an HCF)795 (8.2)69 (21.9)246 (19.7)1110 (9.8)
 Other40 (0.4)2 (0.6)11 (0.9)53 (0.5)
 Unknown54 (0.6)5 (1.6)26 (2.1)85 (0.8)
Level of HCF care received
 No HCF treatment received889 (9.2)76 (24.1)283 (22.6)1248 (11.1)
 Treated or evaluated and released2877 (29.6)82 (26.0)410 (32.8)3369 (29.9)
 Admitted4669 (48.1)94 (29.8)269 (21.5)5032 (44.6)
  Admitted to CCU2287 (23.6)41 (13.0)144 (11.5)2472 (21.9)
  Admitted to non-CCU2380 (24.5)52 (16.5)79 (6.3)2511 (22.3)
  Admitted to psychiatric facility2 (0.0)b1 (0.3)46 (3.7)49 (0.4)
 Other1274 (13.1)63 (20.0)289 (23.1)1626 (14.4)
Medical outcome
 No effect2299 (23.7)76 (24.1)105 (8.4)2480 (22.0)
 Minor effect3558 (36.6)102 (32.4)404 (32.3)4064 (36.0)
 Serious outcome2079 (21.4)37 (11.7)275 (22.0)2391 (21.2)
  Moderate effect1882 (19.4)34 (10.8)239 (19.1)2155 (19.1)
  Major effect190 (2.0)3 (1.0)32 (2.6)225 (2.0)
  Death7 (0.1)0 (0.0)4 (0.3)11 (0.1)
 Not followed (at most minimal clinical effects possible)520 (5.4)44 (14.0)228 (18.2)792 (7.0)
 Unable to follow (potentially toxic exposure)1253 (12.9)56 (17.8)239 (19.1)1548 (13.7)
Total, row %c9709 (86.1)315 (2.8)1251 (11.1)11 275 (100.0)
  • a Column percentages may not sum to 100.0% because of rounding error.

  • b Potentially miscoded cases given children’s young age.

  • c Row percentages may not sum to 100.0% because of rounding error.