TABLE 3

Maternal Race/Ethnicity and Nativity in Relation to Child's Diagnosis of AD by Expressive Language Skills at 5 Years of Age

Maternal Race/Ethnicity and NativityImpaired Expressive LanguageLess-Impaired Expressive Language
Case/Cohort, nRate, per 10 000 BirthsCrude RR (95% CI)Adjusted RRa (95% CI)Case/Cohort, nRate, per 10 000 BirthsCrude RR (95% CI)Adjusted RRa (95% CI)
White
 US-born349/197 99217.61.001.00509/197 99225.71.001.00
 Foreign-born109/51 54021.11.16 (0.94–1.44)1.24 (1.00–1.54)117/51 54022.70.88 (0.72–1.08)0.91 (0.74–1.11)
Black
 US-born189/103 64318.21.04 (0.87–1.24)1.37 (1.13–1.66)106/103 64310.20.40 (0.32–0.49)0.84 (0.68–1.05)
 Foreign-born38/833145.62.55 (1.83–3.57)2.76 (1.96–3.89)14/833116.80.65 (0.38–1.11)0.90 (0.53–1.54)
Hispanic
 US-born429/250 82517.10.92 (0.80–1.06)1.28 (1.09–1.49)309/250 82512.30.48 (0.42–0.55)1.01 (0.86–1.19)
 Foreign-born993/595 68016.70.95 (0.84–1.07)1.36 (1.17–1.57)451/595 6807.60.30 (0.26–0.33)0.83 (0.71–0.97)
  Mexico700/460 14115.20.86 (076–0.98)1.12 (0.95–1.33)301/460 1416.50.25 (0.22–0.29)0.78 (0.64–0.95)
  Central/South America275/130 57921.11.18 (1.01–1.39)1.57 (1.31–1.89)142/130 57910.90.42 (0.35–0.51)1.03 (0.84–1.28)
Asian/PI
 US-born42/16 88624.91.31 (0.95–1.81)1.34 (0.97–1.86)42/16 88624.90.97 (0.71–1.33)1.01 (0.74–1.39)
 Foreign-born348/115 95330.01.65 (1.42–1.91)1.58 (1.35–1.84)182/115 95315.70.61 (0.51–0.72)0.66 (0.55–0.79)
  China56/23 53623.81.28 (0.96–1.70)1.06 (0.78–1.42)38/23 53616.10.63 (0.45–0.87)0.61 (0.43–0.87)
  Japan13/464628.01.51 (0.87–2.63)1.34 (0.75–2.40)5/464610.80.42 (0.17–1.01)NA
  Korea54/17 76630.41.65 (1.24–2.19)1.82 (1.34–2.43)20/17 76611.30.44 (0.28–0.68)0.52 (0.33–0.81)
  Philippines94/28 90132.51.80 (1.43–2.26)1.86 (1.48–2.34)55/28 90119.00.74 (0.56–0.98)0.82 (0.62–1.10)
  Vietnam73/16 07045.42.56 (1.99–3.30)2.06 (1.58–2.70)34/16 07021.10.82 (0.58–1.16)0.96 (0.67–1.37)
  • CI, confidence interval; NA, not applicable; RR, risk ratio.

  • a Adjusted for maternal age (≤18, 19–25, 26–30, 31–35, or >35 years), type of birth (single or twin+), parity (1, 2, 3, or >3 children), infant gender (male or female), year of birth (1995–2006), gestational age (<37 weeks or ≥37 weeks), birth weight (<2500, 2500–4500, or >4500 g), trimester start of prenatal care (no care, first, second, or third trimester), any pregnancy complication (hypertension, renal, lung, or cardiac disease, asthma, pyelonephritis, diabetes, gestational diabetes, Rh sensitivity, hemoglobinopathy, uterine bleeding, hydramnios, incomplete cervix, sexually transmitted diseases, hepatitis B, rubella, other infections, prenatal tobacco use, and large fibroids), maternal education (less than high school, high school, more than high school), insurance type (Medi-Cal, private insurance, other), and regional center. Language information is presented for cases 5 years of age at evaluation; cohort is for 1995–2004 births, N = 1 340 850.