TABLE 1

Maternal Race/Ethnicity and Nativity in Relation to Children's Diagnosis of AD in LA County

Maternal Race/Ethnicity and NativityMean (SD) Age at Diagnosis, yCase/Cohort, nRate, per 10 000 BirthsCrude RR (95% CI)Maternal Age–Adjusted RR (95% CI)Adjusted RRa (95% CI)Additionally Adjusted RRb (95% CI)RR Additionally Adjusted by Regional Center (95% CI)
White
 US-born3.4 (0.9)1477/236 34762.51.001.001.001.001.00
 Foreign-born3.3 (0.9)420/63 46466.21.06 (0.95–1.18)1.06 (0.95–1.19)1.02 (0.91–1.14)1.05 (0.94–1.17)1.04 (0.93–1.16)
Black
 US-born3.4 (0.9)526/123 31642.60.68 (0.62–0.75)0.84 (0.76–0.93)1.00 (0.90–1.10)1.04 (0.94–1.15)1.14 (1.02–1.26)
 Foreign-born3.2 (0.9)92/10 09391.21.46 (1.18–1.80)1.49 (1.20–1.84)1.59 (1.28–1.96)1.65 (1.33–2.05)1.76 (1.41–2.18)
Hispanic
 US-born3.5 (0.8)1376/316 56543.50.70 (0.65–0.75)0.97 (0.90–1.05)1.08 (1.00–1.17)1.15 (1.06–1.24)1.13 (1.04–1.22)
 Foreign-born3.5 (0.9)2594/711 82536.40.58 (0.55–0.62)0.69 (0.64–0.73)0.85 (0.79–0.91)1.05 (0.97–1.14)1.06 (0.98–1.15)
  Mexico3.5 (0.9)1792/548 97732.60.52 (0.49–0.56)0.61 (0.57–0.66)0.76 (0.70–0.82)0.95 (0.86–1.05)0.95 (0.86–1.05)
  Central/South America3.6 (0.9)760/157 14748.40.77 (0.71–0.84)0.89 (0.81–0.97)1.08 (0.98–1.19)1.25 (1.13–1.39)1.26 (1.14–1.40)
Asian/PI
 US-born3.1 (0.8)138/21 67863.71.02 (0.85–1.21)1.08 (0.91–1.29)1.03 (0.86–1.22)1.02 (0.85–1.21)1.04 (0.87–1.24)
 Foreign-born3.5 (0.9)917/143 06664.11.03 (0.94–1.11)1.01 (0.93–1.10)0.98 (0.90–1.06)1.04 (0.95–1.13)1.02 (0.93–1.11)
  China3.5 (0.9)145/29 66648.90.78 (0.66–0.93)0.74 (0.62–0.87)0.66 (0.56–0.79)0.74 (0.62–0.89)0.69 (0.57–0.83)
  Japan3.2 (0.7)29/581549.90.82 (0.57–1.18)0.76 (0.53–1.09)0.71 (0.49–1.02)0.72 (0.50–1.04)0.70 (0.48–1.03)
  Korea3.4 (0.9)136/22 20661.20.98 (0.82–1.16)0.98 (0.82–1.18)0.92 (0.77–1.10)0.95 (0.80–1.14)0.97 (0.81–1.17)
  Philippines3.5 (1.0)266/35 30675.31.21 (1.06–1.37)1.21 (1.06–1.37)1.23 (1.08–1.40)1.23 (1.08–1.41)1.25 (1.09–1.43)
  Vietnam3.6 (0.9)179/19 28792.81.48 (1.27–1.74)1.49 (1.27–1.74)1.45 (1.24–1.70)1.58 (1.35–1.86)1.43 (1.21–1.68)
  • CI, confidence interval; RR, risk ratio.

  • a Adjusted for maternal age (≤18, 19–25, 26–30, 31–35, or >35 years), type of birth (single or twin+), parity (1, 2, 3, or >3 children), infant gender (male or female), year of birth (1995–2006), gestational age (<37 weeks or ≥37 weeks), birth weight (<2500, 2500–4500, or >4500 g), trimester start of prenatal care (no care, first, second, or third trimester), and any pregnancy complication (hypertension, renal, lung, or cardiac disease, asthma, pyelonephritis, diabetes, gestational diabetes, Rh sensitivity, hemoglobinopathy, uterine bleeding, hydramnios, incomplete cervix, sexually transmitted diseases, hepatitis B, rubella, other infections, prenatal tobacco use, and large fibroids).

  • b Additionally adjusted for maternal education (less than high school, high school, more than high school) and insurance type (Medi-Cal, private insurance, other).