Perioperative Interventions

Airway management
 Bag and mask ventilation
Needle thoracentesis
Chest tube insertion
Blood product transfusion
Invasive monitoring (eg, central venous, arterial)
Chest compressions
Cardiac pacing
Point-of-care arrest medications (epinephrine, atropine, sodium bicarbonate, calcium, other vasoactive drugs)
Postoperative ventilation support
  • Optimum care for hopelessly ill patients. A report of the Clinical Care Committee of the Massachusetts General Hospital. N Engl J Med. 1976;295(7):362–364.