TABLE 2

Clinical Manifestations of Cannabis-Intoxicated Patients Aged <6 Years Admitted Between 2004 and 2014 in French PEDs and Compared With Published Series (Percentage in Columns)

Present StudyPaSpadari et al6Onders et al7Cao et al8
Type of unit, locationPEDs, FrancePCC, FrancePCC, United StatesPCC, United States
Study designRetrospective, multicenterRetrospective, single centerRetrospective, multicenterRetrospective, multicenter
Years2004–20092010–20142004–20141993–20082000–20132013–2015
Patients,b n46183229931969c92
Symptoms, % (n)
 Neurologic80.4 (37)87.4 (160)86.0 (197).2257.0 (53)45.585.8 (79)
  Drowsiness63.0 (29)60.1 (110)60.7 (139).7248.4 (41)29.566.3 (61)
  Hypotonia34.8 (16)35.5 (65)35.4 (81).9310.7 (10)0.7
  Coma4.35 (2)16.9 (31)14.4 (33).03<1 (1)0.9
  Agitation6.52 (3)10.9 (20)10.0 (23).588.6 (8)3.35.4 (5)
  Ataxia17.4 (8)7.10 (13)9.17 (21).043.2 (3)5.414.1 (13)
  Convulsions6.52 (3)5.46 (10)5.24 (12).772.2 (2)0.5
  Euphoria6.52 (3)4.37 (8)4.80 (11).463.2 (3)NSNS
 Cardiovascular30.4 (14)29.5 (54)29.7 (68).906.5 (6)4.1
  Hypertension17.4 (8)9.28 (17)10.9 (25).120.3
  Tachycardia6.52 (3)14.2 (26)13.5 (31).225.4 (5)3.19.8 (9)
  Hypotension2.17 (1)1.09 (2)1.31 (3).49<1 (1)0.3
 Ophthalmologic45.6 (21)52.4 (98)51.1 (117).3410.7 (10)5.9
  Mydriasis41.3 (19)46.9 (88)45.8 (105).418.6 (8)3.49.8 (9)
  Conjunctival hyperemia2.17 (1)12.0 (22)10.0 (23).052.2 (2)1.28.7 (8)
 Respiratory4.35 (2)10.4 (19)9.17 (21).265.4 (5)1.2
  Hypoventilation6.52 (3)6.01 (11)6.11 (14).895.4 (5)
  Apnea0.00 (0)3.27 (6)2.62 (6).600.73.3 (3)
  Assisted ventilation0.00 (0)4.37 (8)3.49 (8).36NS2.2 (2)
 Temperature
  Hyperthermia (≥38.5°C)4.34 (2)2.73 (5)3.06 (7).57<1 (1)0.3
  Hypothermia (<36°C)2.17 (1)2.73 (5)2.62 (6).83<1 (1)
 Disposition
  Hospitalization, % (n)86.9 (40)88.5 (162)88.2 (202).77
  ICU, % (n)4.34 (2)14.7 (25)12.1 (27).08
  • NS, nonspecified. —, not applicable.

  • a Compare years 2010–2014 and 2004–2009.

  • b Exclusion of patients with cointoxications.

  • c Percentages have been calculated out of the number of exposures (symptomatic and asymptomatic patients) and not out of the number of symptomatic patients (intoxicated).