Redeemed Antibiotic Prescriptions by ATC Code Among Infants Born in Denmark, 2004–2012 (N = 561 729)

ATC Level 5 (Medication)ATC Level 4 (Subgroup)Children With ≥1 Redeemed Antibiotic Prescription During InfancyAll Redeemed Antibiotic Prescriptions (Allowing Multiple per Infant)Days Supplied of Antibiotic Medication (Allowing Multiple Prescriptions per Infant)
No.Risk (%)aNo.RatebShare (%)cDays SuppliedBurdendShare (%)e
All antibioticsAll antibiotics220 65539.3403 88672100.01 368 58967100.0
AmoxicillinExtended spectrum penicillins144 10425.8223 9994055.5844 4664161.7
Penicillin Vβ-lactamase sensitive penicillins104 60918.7133 6222433.1341 8381725.0
Amoxicillin clavulanateCombinations of penicillins75411.310 69422.648 53923.5
ErythromycinMacrolides14 7972.618 24034.579 75045.8
ClarithromycinMacrolides60241.1707411.826 14211.9
  • Data not shown for other antibiotics because of small numbers: ampicillin, pivampicillin, pivmecillinam, dicloxacillin, flucloxacillin, cefuroxime, meropenem, sulfamethizole, roxithromycin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, colistin, fusidic acid, and nitrofurantoin.

  • a Risk estimates reflect medication-specific cumulative incidence of at least 1 redeemed antibiotic prescription for during infancy on the basis of the complement of the Kaplan-Meier survival function, which accounted for censoring at death or emigration; the sum of medication-specific risks exceeds overall antibiotic risk because infants could redeem prescriptions for >1 type of antibiotic medication in their first year.

  • b Rate = no. of redeemed prescriptions per 100 infant years of follow-up.

  • c Share of antibiotic rate = (no. of redeemed prescriptions) ÷ (total no. of redeemed prescriptions for all antibiotics).

  • d Population-level antibiotic drug burden = days supply per 10 000 infant days of follow-up.

  • e Share of antibiotic burden = (days supply) ÷ (total days supply for all antibiotics).