TABLE 5

Moderation Analysis of the Association of Any Father Loss and Child TL at Age 9 by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Serotonergic and Dopaminergic Pathway Genes of Child (N = 2420)

SexRaceSerotonergic Pathway (Terciles)Dopaminergic Pathway (Terciles)
BoyGirlAfrican AmericanWhiteHispanicFirstSecondThirdFirstSecondThird
Any loss (% change in TL)−16* (.03)−12a (.06)−13* (.04)−16** (.008)−14* (.02)−10 (.15)−14* (.04)−17**,a (.006)−15* (.01)−14* (.02)−15* (.01)
Any loss 0–5 (% change in TL)−17* (.04)−13* (.03)−14* (.01)−18** (.005)−15* (.01)−8 (.21)−16 (.17)−22**,a (.009)−13* (.03)−16* (.02)−18* (.01)
Any loss 5–9 (% change in TL)−12 (.12)−14* (.05)−17** (.01)−12 (.11)−14* (.03)−10 (.24)−12 (.20)−16 (.16)−16* (.03)−10* (.05)−14* (.04)
  • Each model is run within 1 group (ie, boys or girls who were either African American, white, or Hispanic). All analyses were controlled for race/ethnicity; mother’s age and education at baseline; household income at baseline; child’s sex, birth weight, and birth order; report of whether parents discussed an abortion; parental report of how their relationship was going before the child’s birth; parental history of depression at baseline; parental history of an alcohol problem at baseline; parental incarceration history; if there was any domestic violence during the pregnancy; mother’s self-report of health; and if the mother lived with her parents at age 15. For the genetic measures, we took the alleles that have been coded as “sensitizing” or “reactive” (0, 1, or 2 for each) and summed them. We divided the samples into terciles of genetic sensitization, with the highest tercile being the one in which we expect to be the most sensitizing.

  • a Indicates that the effects are significantly different between groups (eg, boys versus girls) by using a χ2 test of equality, P < .05.

  • * P < .05.

  • ** P < .01, 2-tailed (P values in parentheses).