TABLE 3

Involvement in Bullying at Elementary School and Specific or Any Parasomnia at Age 12 to13 Years; Adjusted Analysis

Involvement in BullyingNightmareNight TerrorSleepwalkingAny Parsasomnia
Sig. CovariatesOR (95% CI)Sig. CovariatesOR (95% CI)Sig. CovariatesOR (95% CI)Sig. CovariatesOR (95% CI)
Child report (age 8 y)Female gender; persistent nightmares(n = 4026)Female gender; low IQ; persistent nightmares(n = 4023)Female gender; persistent nightmares(n = 4024)Female gender; high SDQ score; at 6.8; persistent nightmares(n = 4026)
 Neutralreferencereferencereferencereference
 Pure victim1.23 (1.05–1.44)a1.39 (1.10–1.75)a1.22 (0.99–1.50)1.28 (1.11–1.47)a
 Pure bully0.92 (0.43–1.94)0.29 (0.04–2.15)0.83 (0.29–2.35)0.77 (0.39–1.52)
 Bully/victim1.19 (0.87–1.63)1.81 (1.19–2.75)a1.68 (1.17–2.41)a1.42 (1.08–1.88)a
Child report (age 10 y)Female gender; persistent nightmares; persistent night waking(n = 4054)Female gender; low IQ; persistent nightmares(n = 4052)Persistent nightmares(n = 4053)Female gender; high SDQ score; at 6.8; low FAI; persistent nightmares(n = 4055)
 Neutralreferencereferencereferencereference
 Pure victim1.62 (1.35–1.94)a1.53 (1.18–1.98)a1.40 (1.11–1.76)a1.75 (1.48–2.07)a
 Pure bully1.11 (0.48–2.61)1.25 (0.37–4.19)1.09 (0.38–3.15)1.32 (0.64–2.73)
 Bully/victim1.87 (1.36–2.56)a1.49 (0.93–2.38)1.23 (0.80–1.87)1.75 (1.30–2.36)a
Chronicity of victimizationFemale gender; persistent nightmares; persistent night waking(n = 3904)Female gender; low IQ; persistent nightmares(n = 3901)Persistent nightmares(n = 3902)Female gender; high SDQ score; at 6.8; low FAI; persistent nightmares(n = 3904)
 Nonereferencereferencereferencereference
 Unstable1.30 (1.10–1.53)a1.29 (1.01–1.65)a1.10 (0.89–1.36)1.25 (1.08–1.44)a
 Stable1.82 (1.46–2.27)a2.01 (1.48–2.74)a1.71 (1.31–2.25)a2.10 (1.72–2.58)a
  • The reference group in all analyses consists of participants who are not involved in bullying behavior.

  • Adjusted analysis controlled for gender of child; Family Adversity Index ([FAI], 18 items, pregnancy); preschool and school persistent nightmares (assessed at age 2.5, 3.5, 4.8, or 6.8 y); preschool and school sleep onset problems (assessed at age 2.5, 3.5, 4.8, or 6.8 y), preschool and school persistent night waking (assessed at age 2.5, 3.5, 4.8, or 6.8 y), sexual or physical abuse at age 2.5, 3.5, 4.8, 5.8, or 6.8 y; preschool maladaptive parenting and preschool domestic violence; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children full scale quotient (WISC-IQ at age 8 y); behavior problems assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) score at age 4, 6.75, and 9.5 y (negative emotionality, conduct problems, hyperactivity); any axis I psychiatric diagnosis (DSM-IV) assessed with the DAWBA at 7 y.

  • a Indicates significant associations.