TABLE 1

Characteristics Among 1078 Mother-Child Pairs Participating in Project Viva, Total and According to Category of Intake of SSBs in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy

CharacteristicCategory of Maternal Second-Trimester SSB Intake (Servings/d)
Total0 to <0.50.5 to <11 to <22 to <3≥3
N = 1078n = 623 (57.8%)n = 241 (22.4%)n = 128 (11.9%)n = 57 (5.2%)n = 29 (2.7%)
Mean (SD)
Maternal
 Age at enrollment, y32.1 (5.4)33.0 (5.1)31.3 (5.2)30.6 (5.6)30.3 (5.9)27.7 (5.4)
 Prepregnancy BMI 24.6 (5.2)24.1 (4.7)24.9 (5.4)25.6 (5.5)25.3 (6.1)27.1 (6.9)
 Gestational age at first FFQ, wk11.9 (3.2)11.9 (3.3)11.7 (3.1)11.9 (3.2)12.3 (3.4)11.7 (3.3)
 Gestational age at second FFQ, wk29.2 (2.5)29.2 (2.4)29.2 (2.6)29.4 (2.5)29.3 (2.8)29.6 (2.4)
 Total gestational weight gain, kg15.6 (5.3)15.8 (4.9)15.4 (5.2)15.2 (6.4)15.8 (5.9)12.9 (6.9)
N (%)
 Race and/or ethnicity
  African American176 (16.4)83 (13.3)40 (16.8)28 (21.7)15 (27.2)10 (33.9)
  Hispanic70 (6.5)31 (4.9)21 (8.5)13 (10.0)4 (6.5)2 (6.5)
  Asian American53 (5.0)40 (6.4)8 (3.4)3 (2.5)2 (3.5)0 (0.0)
  White730 (67.7)446 (71.5)164 (67.8)77 (60.0)30 (53.1)14 (47.6)
  Other49 (4.5)24 (3.8)8 (3.4)7 (5.8)5 (9.6)4 (12.1)
 College graduate
  No347 (32.2)163 (26.2)82 (33.9)55 (43.2)24 (42.8)22 (76.0)
  Yes731 (67.8)460 (73.8)160 (66.1)73 (56.8)32 (57.2)7 (24.0)
 Household income >$70 000
  No424 (39.3)222 (35.6)94 (39.1)59 (46.5)28 (48.9)21 (72.4)
  Yes654 (60.7)402 (64.4)147 (60.9)68 (53.5)29 (51.1)8 (27.6)
 Smoking status
  Never766 (71.0)456 (73.1)165 (68.5)85 (66.8)39 (69.0)20 (70.0)
  Former206 (19.1)120 (19.3)49 (20.3)27 (21.1)9 (15.2)1 (4.5)
  Smoked during pregnancy106 (9.8)47 (7.6)27 (11.2)15 (12.1)9 (15.8)7 (25.6)
 Nulliparous
  No562 (52.1)338 (54.3)112 (46.2)65 (51.0)30 (53.3)17 (57.8)
  Yes516 (47.9)285 (45.7)130 (53.8)63 (49.0)26 (46.7)12 (42.2)
 Prepregnancy BMI category
  <25702 (65.2)431 (69.2)152 (63.1)70 (55.0)36 (63.5)13 (43.0)
  ≥25376 (34.8)192 (30.8)89 (36.9)58 (45.0)21 (36.5)17 (57.0)
N (%)
Child
 Boy535 (49.6)312 (50.1)120 (49.5)61 (47.7)30 (52.7)12 (42.9)
 Girl543 (50.4)311 (49.9)122 (50.5)67 (52.3)27 (47.3)17 (57.1)
Mean (SD)
 Gestational age at birth, wk39.7 (1.4)39.7 (1.3)39.7 (1.5)39.5 (1.5)39.8 (1.5)39.3 (1.5)
 Fetal growth z score0.19 (0.97)0.19 (0.96)0.25 (0.97)0.19 (0.95)−0.01 (1.09)−0.12 (1.03)
 Breastfeeding duration, mo6.5 (4.6)7.0 (4.5)6.4 (4.5)4.7 (4.4)5.0 (4.5)4.5 (4.4)
Midchildhood
 Age, y8.0 (0.9)7.9 (0.8)8.0 (0.8)8.0 (0.8)8.1 (1.0)8.3 (1.0)
 Height, cm128.8 (7.7)128.3 (7.6)129.2 (7.7)129.1 (7.9)129.7 (7.6)132.9 (8.8)
 Weight, kg28.9 (7.8)28.2 (7.1)29.1 (7.6)29.4 (8.2)30.6 (9.0)35.7 (12.9)
 BMI17.2 (3.1)17.0 (2.9)17.2 (2.9)17.4 (3.2)18.0 (3.7)19.7 (4.7)
 BMI z score0.38 (1.00)0.32 (0.96)0.39 (1.00)0.41 (1.12)0.56 (1.05)1.03 (0.95)
 DXA FMI, kg/m24.4 (1.9)4.3 (1.7)4.4 (1.9)4.5 (1.9)4.8 (2.5)5.7 (2.9)
 Sum of SS + TR, mm19.8 (9.7)19.0 (8.9)19.9 (10.0)20.6 (10.2)22.5 (12.3)26.0 (13.1)
 Ratio of SS:TR70.3 (18.7)69.1 (17.4)71.3 (19.7)70.0 (19.0)73.8 (20.9)82.2 (23.9)
 Waist circumference, cm59.9 (8.2)59.2 (7.5)60.4 (8.3)60.5 (8.4)61.7 (10.5)65.6 (12.8)
N (%)
 BMI category
  <85th percentile806 (74.8)484 (77.7)174 (72.0)93 (72.9)39 (69.2)16 (54.9)
  85th to <95th percentile142 (13.1)76 (12.1)38 (15.9)15 (11.6)8 (13.4)5 (17.6)
  ≥95th percentile130 (12.1)63 (10.1)29 (12.2)20 (15.5)10 (17.4)8 (27.5)