TABLE 3

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 8 y Contrasted Between Eras

Outcome1991–199219972005
n = 210n = 142n = 147
Neurosensory
 Major neurosensory disability,a n (%)38 (18)22 (15)26 (18)
 Any cerebral palsy, n (%)27 (13)15 (11)20 (14)
 Moderate or severeb13 (6)9 (6)11 (7)
 Blindness, n (%)2 (1)3 (2)0 (0)
 Deafness, n (%)3 (1)3 (2)5 (3)
 IQ z score, mean (SD)−0.70 (1.26)−0.80 (1.11)−0.74 (1.22)
 IQ z score −2 SD to <−1 SD, n (%)39 (19)47 (33)29 (20)
 IQ z score <−2 SD, n (%)30 (14)14 (10)20 (14)
Academic achievement
 Word reading z score, mean (SD); n−0.39 (1.10); 200−0.51 (1.12); 132−0.87 (1.14); 140
 <−2 SD, n (%)19 (10)11 (8)23 (16)
 Spelling z score, mean (SD); n−0.34 (0.86); 199−0.50 (1.07); 134−0.87 (1.18); 138
 <−2 SD, n (%)6 (3)7 (5)20 (14)
 Mathematics z score, mean (SD); n−0.57 (0.96); 197−0.53 (1.16); 131−0.94 (1.26); 140
 <−2 SD, n (%)12 (6)13 (10)32 (23)
  • Major neurosensory disability; 2005 compared with 1991–1992: OR 0.80, 95% CI, 0.34 to 1.92, P = .62; 2005 compared with 1997: OR 0.99, 95% CI, 0.44 to 2.23, P = .99. Moderate or severe cerebral palsy; 2005 compared with 1991–1992: OR 1.23, 95% CI, 0.53 to 2.83, P = .63; 2005 compared with 1997: OR 1.18, 95% CI, 0.47 to 2.96, P = .72. OR and 95% CIs not calculated for blindness or deafness because rates were too low.

  • a Any of moderate or severe cerebral palsy, blindness, deafness, or an IQ z score <−2 SD.

  • b Cerebral palsy severity defined by either functional classification (1991–1992 cohort) or the GMFCS (1997 and 2005 cohorts); moderate (walking with considerable difficulty, with or without appliances, GMFCS level 2 or 3), or severe (unable to walk, GMFCS level 4 or 5).