TABLE 3

Pain Behaviors in Nonverbal Children With SNI

CategoryExamples
VocalizationsCrying, whimpering, moaning, gasping, sharp intake of breath
Facial expressionGrimacing, frowning, furrowed brow, squinting, eyes wide open, clenched teeth, teeth grinding, distressed look
ConsolabilityInability to be consoled and made comfortable
InteractionWithdrawn, seeking comfort
SleepDisturbed sleep, increased or decreased sleep
MovementIncrease from baseline in movement of arms and legs, restless and fidgety, startles easily, pulls away when touched, twists or turns
ToneStiffening of extremities, clenching of fists, back arching, resists movement
PhysiologicTachycardia, sweating, shivering, change in color, pallor, breath holding, tears
Atypical featuresBlunted facial expression, laughter, breath holding, self-injurious behaviors