TABLE 4

Mean PIP Scores, 2008–2016, by Child Care Center and Director Characteristics

Characteristics2008 (n = 910) M (SD)Pa2016, n = 350, M (SD)Pa
Total PIPb1.16 (0.98)NA1.19 (0.91)NA
NAEYCc accreditation<.01<.01
 Yes1.27 (1.01)1.36 (0.94)
 No1.07 (0.94)1.08 (0.88)
Head start<.001.11
 Yes1.53 (1.14)1.40 (0.99)
 No1.10 (0.94)1.16 (0.90)
Youngest age<.001.39
 0–6 wk1.55 (1.14)1.15 (0.87)
 7 wk–24 mo1.08 (0.92)1.23 (0.91)
 >25 mo1.47 (1.14)1.06 (0.96)
Average daily attendance.12<.05
 1–251.29 (1.07)0.89 (0.78)
 26–591.08 (0.96)1.13 (0.91)
 >601.90 (0.97)1.30 (0.93)
Most common racial background of attendees<.01.45
 White1.12 (0.98)1.17 (0.88)
 African American1.30 (1.00)1.10 (0.94)
 Latino/Latina1.06 (0.92)1.45 (1.06)
 Other0.72 (1.02)1.00 (0.63)
 Mixed backgrounds without single most common race1.42 (0.88)1.17 (0.92)
Director’s highest level of education<.05.08
 High school diploma or associates degree1.13 (0.92)1.05 (0.98)
 Bachelor’s or1.12 (0.97)1.18 (0.84)
 Master’s or above1.33 (1.07)1.37 (0.98)
Director degree in early childhood education or child development<.05.05
 Yes1.22 (1.00)1.24 (0.06)
 No1.03 (0.92)1.00 (0.09)
Director years of experience<.001.07
 0–100.91 (0.87)0.97 (0.85)
 11–170.96 (0.89)1.14 (0.93)
 18–241.27 (0.93)1.28 (0.88)
 >251.50 (1.07)1.31 (1.01)
  • a P values determined by using independent samples t test and 1-way ANOVA.

  • b PIP range = 0–4 points.

  • c Programs accredited, or in the process of accreditation, by a program like the NAEYC.