TABLE 3

Etiology of PPHN According to GA

GA, wk
All34–36 37–3839–40≥ 41
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Etiology32775229361495324
CDH200 (6.1)21 (4.0)67 (7.2)101 (6.8)11 (3.4)
Other congenital anomalies of respiratory system155 (4.7)48 (9.2)37 (4.0)59 (4.0)11 (3.4)
 Agenesis of the lung81 (2.5)38 (7.3)21 (2.2)19 (1.3)3 (0.9)
 Other lung anomaly11 (0.3)3 (0.6)0 (0.0)7 (0.5)1 (0.3)
 Other respiratory anomaly69 (2.1)9 (1.7)16 (1.7)37 (2.5)7 (2.2)
MASa799 (24.4)30 (5.7)126 (13.5)476 (31.8)167 (51.5)
Infectionb982 (30.0)223 (42.7)302 (32.3)400 (26.8)57 (17.6)
RDS231 (7.1)103 (19.7)79 (8.4)42 (2.8)7 (2.2)
Other identified causes264 (8.1)26 (5.0)114 (12.2)110 (7.4)14 (4.3)
 Birth asphyxia16 (0.5)1 (0.2)6 (0.6)8 (0.5)1 (0.3)
 Cystic kidney6 (0.2)2 (0.4)0 (0.0)3 (0.2)1 (0.3)
 Cystic lung0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Hydrops fetalis9 (0.3)6 (1.1)3 (0.3)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Interstitial emphysema53 (1.6)4 (0.8)19 (2.0)24 (1.6)6 (1.9)
 Neonatal leukemia2 (0.1)1 (0.2)0 (0.0)1 (0.1)0 (0.0)
 Polycythemia33 (1.0)0 (0.0)14 (1.5)16 (1.1)3 (0.9)
 Renal agenesis2 (0.1)0 (0.0)1 (0.1)1 (0.1)0 (0.0)
 Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy29 (0.9)4 (0.8)11 (1.2)12 (0.8)2 (0.6)
 Trisomy 21144 (4.4)11 (2.1)73 (7.8)58 (3.9)2 (0.6)
Idiopathic646 (19.7)71 (13.6)211 (22.5)307 (20.5)57 (17.6)
  • a A total of 407 infants with MAS also had infection, 42 infants with MAS also had RDS, and 123 infants with MAS also had infection and RDS.

  • b A total of 351 infants with infection also had RDS.