TABLE 1

Baseline Characteristics of Study Participants (n = 60)

VariableAdvertisement ConditionPa
Nonfood (n = 30)Food (n = 30)
Age (y), mean (SD)4.0 (0.8)4.2 (1.0).39
Male, n (%)17 (56.7)16 (53.3)>.99
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
 White, non-Hispanic24 (80.0)24 (80.0)>.99
 Hispanic2 (6.7)2 (6.7)
 Other4 (13.3)4 (13.3)
Maternal education, n (%)
 Some high school or high school diploma2 (6.7)2 (6.7).43
 Some post–high school or associate degree3 (10.0)0 (0)
 College graduate10 (33.3)12 (40.0)
 Professional or graduate school15 (50.0)16 (53.3)
Household income, n (%)
 <$25 0000 (0)1 (3.3).75
 $25 000–$64 99911 (36.7)10 (33.3)
 $65 000–$144 99913 (43.3)13 (43.3)
 $145 000–$224 9992 (6.7)4 (13.3)
 >$225 0004 (13.3)2 (6.7)
BMI percentile, mean (SD)60.0 (22.5)63.1 (25.8).62
Weight status,b n (%)
 Healthy weight: BMI <85th percentile26 (86.7)22 (73.3).29
 Overweight: BMI 85th-94.9th percentile4 (13.3)6 (20.0)
 Obese: BMI ≥95th percentile0 (0)2 (6.7)
Physical activity (h/d), mean (SD)3.7 (1.8)3.3 (1.8).36
TV or movie viewing (h/d), mean (SD)1.4 (1.2)1.7 (1.2).32
Parental feeding restriction (range: 1–5),c mean (SD)3.3 (0.9)3.5 (0.9).40
Calories consumed during preload phase, mean (SD)75.9 (69.6)98.3 (89.0).28
Taste test results: liked snack foods, n (%)19 (63.3)25 (83.3).14
  • a Calculated from an unpaired 2-tailed t-test with an unequal variance assumption to analyze the difference in means, or a χ2 test to analyze the difference in proportions when expected cell counts were >5 and Fisher’s exact test when expected cell counts were <5.

  • b Based on US. Centers for Disease Control 2000 growth charts.18

  • c From the parental restriction subscale of the Child Feeding Questionnaire.19