TABLE 1

Trends in 12-Month MDEs in Adolescents (n = 172 495) and Young Adults (n = 178 755) in the United States, Stratified According to Major Sociodemographic Groups

Percent of Participants in Each Survey Year Meeting Criteria for 12-mo MDEsMain Effecta,bInteractionc
2005200620072008200920102011201220132014Wald TestPWald TestP
All adolescent participants8.78.08.28.48.08.08.39.310.611.399.82<.001dd
 Age, y
  12–135.65.34.35.14.54.24.25.65.97.221.15<.001
  14–159.17.88.68.58.69.08.710.112.111.839.24<.001
  16–1711.210.611.611.010.510.611.711.913.414.739.60<.0011.90.115
 Sex
  Girls13.111.912.112.611.312.012.114.216.117.398.75<.001
  Boys4.54.24.64.34.94.24.74.65.25.710.09<.0014.06.020
 Race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic white9.08.08.98.88.28.68.99.510.912.160.97<.001
  Non-Hispanic black7.26.96.97.57.36.47.17.98.38.93.79.026
  Hispanic9.48.17.57.28.18.07.610.510.511.215.84<.001
  Non-Hispanic other7.59.66.910.07.96.78.77.112.510.97.47<.0010.57.757
 Family income, $
  <20 0009.17.57.98.46.87.88.510.910.011.013.75<.001
  20 000–49 9999.19.59.48.88.68.69.49.110.611.513.09<.001
  50 000–74 9999.77.17.47.98.59.37.59.712.612.330.05<.001
  75 000+7.47.27.88.27.96.87.68.59.910.939.56<.0011.38.228
 12-mo substance use disorder
  Alcohol use disorder21.117.819.623.621.522.523.126.831.529.012.19<.001
  Cannabis use disorder22.918.117.718.718.513.916.520.123.323.53.38.038
  Other drug use disorder24.026.535.934.035.238.228.943.835.139.03.42.036
  Drug use disorder with alcohol use disorder27.321.224.630.123.728.028.132.436.535.34.18.018
  No substance use disorder7.67.07.17.17.16.97.38.29.610.483.18<.0011.94.149
All young adult participants8.88.08.18.68.18.48.29.08.99.619.97<.001dd
 Age, y
  18–208.97.57.18.87.98.48.89.49.510.119.88<.001
  21–258.78.38.48.28.47.97.98.88.69.34.64.0126.43.002
 Sex
  Women11.910.310.811.610.611.810.911.911.911.88.07<.001
  Men5.75.75.55.55.55.25.66.16.07.413.03<.0014.01.021
 Race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic white9.58.69.08.89.08.89.010.010.211.129.12<.001
  Non-Hispanic black6.67.36.56.56.18.15.75.95.86.10.84.435
  Hispanic8.16.26.59.26.77.67.48.57.47.80.22.800
  Non-Hispanic other8.07.97.58.67.47.49.18.89.39.93.59.0312.89.012
 Family income, $
  <20 0009.38.49.29.18.88.98.69.79.610.04.34.015
  20 000–49 9998.88.07.98.57.78.38.48.88.68.93.41.037
  50 000–74 9998.57.06.47.58.17.08.18.07.59.12.90.059
  75 000+8.07.98.28.77.68.97.48.99.510.210.26<.0010.80.570
 12-mo substance use disorder
  Alcohol use disorder14.015.414.414.414.313.813.417.917.417.25.37.006
  Cannabis use disorder15.011.312.714.912.816.013.213.315.418.32.47.090
  Other drug use disorder24.819.416.724.419.921.223.418.922.528.11.45.239
  Drug use disorder with alcohol use disorder18.321.019.019.420.920.317.122.725.324.33.59.031
  No substance use disorder7.16.06.56.86.56.97.07.17.27.911.15<.0010.64.527
  • Data source: The 2005–2014 NSDUH.

  • a Adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, student status, presence of parents in household and substance use disorders in analyses for adolescents and for age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, employment, student status, and substance use disorders in analyses for young adults.

  • b Adjusted Wald F test for the predictors from the logistic regression model. In these models, 12-mo MDE was parameterized by a regression spline with 2 basis functions and 1 knot automatically selected at position 8 on the predictor variable (corresponding to year 2012) in adolescents and a regression spline with 2 basis functions and 1 knot automatically selected at position 3 (corresponding to year 2007) in young adults (see Appendix 1 for detail).

  • c Based on adjusted Wald F test for the interaction of each variable with the predictors from the spline regression model.

  • d Interaction tests examine variations in trend among subgroups and cannot be computed for whole group.