TABLE 4

Logistic Regression Models Estimating Children's Health as a Function of Family Type: 2011–2012 NSCH

Fair or Poor HealthLearning DisabilityADD or ADHDDepressionAnxiety
OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)
Adopted from foster care2.63(0.96–7.22)2.83(1.57–5.11)1.77(1.03–3.02)0.72(0.35–1.48)1.02(0.57–1.84)
Married biological parents1.60(0.67–3.82)0.86(0.50–1.46)a0.21(0.13–0.33)a0.09(0.04–0.17)a0.20(0.11–0.34)a
Cohabiting biological parents1.56(0.62–3.97)0.86(0.46–1.59)a0.21(0.12–0.38)a0.25(0.11–0.61)a0.18(0.09–0.36)a
Married step-parents1.45(0.52–4.03)0.82(0.46–1.47)a0.39(0.23–0.)a0.32(0.15–0.71)a0.30(0.16–0.55)a
Cohabiting step-parents2.04(0.78–5.35)1.14(0.59–2.22)a0.40(0.23–0.71)a0.38(0.17–0.86)0.45(0.22–0.92)a
Single mother1.95(0.80–4.77)0.97(0.57–1.66)a0.29(0.18–0.48)a0.28(0.14–0.56)a0.32(0.18–0.57)a
Single father1.57(0.59–4.22)0.57(0.29–1.11)a0.20(0.11–0.35)a0.12(0.04–0.42)a0.08(0.04–0.17)a
Only grandparents0.78(0.33–1.85)a1.10(0.62–1.97)a0.77(0.45–1.30)a0.32(0.15–0.68)a0.38(0.20–0.71)a
Grandparents and parents1.89(0.78–4.57)0.77(0.45–1.34)a0.29(0.17–0.48)a0.21(0.10–0.44)a0.35(0.19–0.63)a
Only relatives1.10(0.35–3.44)0.97(0.46–1.34)a0.88(0.43–1.80)a0.68(0.21–2.22)0.44(0.17–1.12)
Relatives and parents1.70(0.69–4.22)0.70(0.39–1.26)a0.26(0.15–0.45)a0.14(0.06–0.31)a0.30(0.14–0.62)a
Nonrelatives2.64(0.93–7.48)0.69(0.35–1.36)a0.28(0.15–0.51)a0.17(0.07–0.39)a0.29(0.14–0.62)a
Other complex family type1.03(0.39–2.74)a0.83(0.39–1.78)a0.39(0.21–0.72)a0.08(0.03–0.23)a0.16(0.07–0.37)a
Behavioral ProblemsDevelopmental DelayAsthmaObesitySpeech Problems
OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)
Adopted from foster care1.45(0.81–2.60)2.51(1.33–4.73)0.65(0.35–1.21)0.80(0.40–1.63)0.87(0.41–1.84)
Married biological parents0.13(0.07–0.22)a0.87(0.47–1.60)a0.49(0.28–0.86)0.84(0.44–1.61)0.64(0.32–1.25)
Cohabiting biological parents0.20(0.09–0.42)a0.83(0.39–1.78)a0.49(0.27–0.91)1.40(0.66–2.96)a0.70(0.33–1.48)
Married step-parents0.37(0.19–0.71)a0.78(0.40–1.52)a0.62(0.34–1.12)0.86(0.43–1.71)0.50(0.23–1.10)
Cohabiting step-parents0.42(0.19–0.91)a0.99(0.47–2.11)a0.67(0.36–1.25)0.95(0.45–1.98)0.61(0.27–1.38)
Single mother0.28(0.16–0.49)a0.91(0.49–1.68)a0.63(0.36–1.11)1.06(0.55–2.05)0.61(0.31–1.21)
Single father0.17(0.08–0.40)a0.73(0.34–1.60)a0.36(0.18–0.71)a0.76(0.37–1.58)0.43(0.18–1.05)
Only grandparents0.42(0.23–0.76)a0.99(0.53–1.83)a1.11(0.60–2.05)a0.92(0.47–1.83)0.50(0.24–1.02)
Grandparents and parents0.21(0.12–0.36)a0.71(0.38–1.31)a0.63(0.36–1.13)1.18(0.60–2.32)0.52(0.26–1.03)a
Only relatives0.58(0.26–1.29)a1.04(0.44–2.46)a0.78(0.31–1.95)0.72(0.24–2.13)0.64(0.24–1.08)
Relatives and parents0.18(0.09–0.34)a0.73(0.35–1.49)a0.58(0.32–1.05)1.33(0.64–2.75)0.51(0.24–1.08)
Nonrelatives0.16(0.08–0.32)a0.81(0.37–1.77)a0.58(0.26–1.28)1.11(0.49–2.50)0.42(0.18–0.96)a
Other complex family type0.10(0.05–0.23)a0.52(0.23–1.15)a0.84(0.41–1.72)0.55(0.25–1.19)0.33(0.14–0.76)a
Hearing ProblemsVision ProblemsActivity Limitation
OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)
Adopted from foster care0.46(0.10–2.18)1.87(0.51–6.92)1.81(0.98–3.32)
Married biological parents0.39(0.08–1.92)0.75(0.19–3.00)a0.74(0.43–1.29)a
Cohabiting biological parents0.44(0.08–2.38)0.58(0.13–2.55)a0.73(0.38–1.37)a
Married step-parents0.53(0.10–2.73)0.74(0.18–3.12)a0.88(0.45–1.70)a
Cohabiting step-parents0.51(0.10–2.72)1.17(0.23–6.04)1.01(0.47–2.14)
Single mother0.43(0.08–2.16)1.18(0.29–4.86)1.00(0.57–1.75)a
Single father0.45(0.11–1.93)0.44(0.12–1.63)a0.49(0.22–1.10)a
Only grandparents0.99(0.25–3.98)0.87(0.25–3.02)0.85(0.46–1.56)a
Grandparents and parents0.42(0.08–2.22)0.72(0.19–2.80)a0.85(0.48–1.51)a
Only relatives0.58(0.13–2.50)0.91(0.16–5.22)0.88(0.34–2.29)
Relatives and parents0.49(0.10–2.52)0.94(0.22–3.92)0.81(0.43–1.52)a
Nonrelatives0.21(0.04–1.12)0.60(0.14–2.66)a1.08(0.46–2.56)
Other complex family type0.26(0.05–1.46)0.31(0.08–1.22)a1.04(0.45–2.39)
  • Across each outcome variable, the reference category is children who were neither placed in foster care nor adopted from foster care. All models adjust for the following: child age, child is a girl, child born low birth weight, child race/ethnicity, child first- or second-generation immigrant, mother age, parent highest educational attainment, parent married to child's biological father, parent unemployed, family often has difficulty getting by on its income, household member receives welfare, household member receives WIC, household income below the poverty line, parent owns home, child health insurance, child saw doctor in past year, parent in fair or poor health, household member smokes inside home, and neighborhood not always safe for child. All analyses account for the sampling design.

  • a Coefficient is statistically different from “adopted from foster care” coefficient (P < .05).