TABLE 4

Changes in Pain Practice (Assessment and Management) Outcomes Over Time in Study Units

VariableBaseline12 mo24 mo36 moOverall Effect of Time
NonboosterBoosterNonboosterBoosterNonboosterBoosterNonboosterBoosterχP
Any pain assessment675 (70.6)622 (64.9)184 (70.0)221 (81.3)183 (76.6)207 (86.3)184 (76.7)206 (85.8)1.84.40
Any validated pain assessment293 (30.7)208 (21.7)87 (33.1)133 (48.9)95 (39.8)116 (48.3)94 (39.2)137 (57.1)2.33.31
Any painful procedure778 (51.1)746 (77.9)228 (86.7)212 (77.9)196 (82.0)194 (80.8)191 (79.6)178 (74.2)1.66.44
Any pain management strategya580 (74.6)583 (78.2)173 (75.9)161 (75.9)139 (70.9)140 (72.2)130 (68.1)138 (77.5)1.04.60
Received analgesica532 (68.4)469 (62.9)161 (70.6)123 (58.0)137 (69.9)114 (58.8)119 (62.3)100 (56.2)2.12.35
Received physical strategya90 (11.6)145 (19.4)46 (49.5)47 (22.2)18 (9.2)25 (12.9)38 (19.9)42 (23.6)7.35.025
Received psychological strategya95 (12.2)148 (19.8)44 (19.3)67 (31.6)11 (5.6)34 (17.5)33 (17.3)41 (23.0)6.67.036
Linked analgesica194 (24.9)198 (26.5)92 (40.4)61 (28.8)88 (44.9)65 (33.5)68 (35.6)43 (24.2)4.18.12
Linked physical strategya16 (2.1)27 (3.6)26 (11.4)17 (8.0)7 (3.6)13 (6.7)14 (7.3)12 (6.7)2.86.24
Linked psych strategya1 (0.1)9 (1.2)11 (4.8)9 (4.3)4 (2.0)5 (2.6)10 (5.2)1 (0.6)2.60.27
Mean ± SD pain intensity3.97 ± 2.264.22 ± 2.534.17 ± 2.314.62 ± 2.604.04 ± 2.484.40 ± 2.571.10.58
  • a These analyses were restricted to only those participants who underwent a painful procedure.