TABLE 3

Logistic GEE Regression of Pain Intensity, Controlling for Covariates in Children With Moderate to Severe Pain

FactorOverallNonbooster UnitsBooster Units
Adjusted Odds Ratio of Severe Versus Moderate Pain (95% CI)z ValuePAdjusted Odds Ratio of Severe Versus Moderate Pain (95% CI)z ValuePAdjusted Odds Ratio of Severe Versus Moderate Pain (95% CI)z ValueP
Age3.01
 <366 d3.89 (1.61–9.41).0032.14 (0.47–9.74)0.99.329.16 (2.75– 30.46)3.61<.001
 1–3 y3.33 (1.14–9.67)2.21.023.92 (0.62–24.80)1.45.153.02 (0.92–9.88)1.83.068
 4–6 y3.18 (1.49–6.81)2.98.0032.35 (0.66–8.42)1.31.194.49 (1.54–13.11)2.75.006
 7–12 y3.18 (1.51–6.69)3.05.0021.14 (0.45–2.87)0.27.796.39 (2.81–14.55)4.42<.001
 13–18 y1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
Sex
 Male vs female0.75 (0.48–1.17)−1.25.210.69 (0.34–1.41)−1.02.310.83 (0.55–1.24)−0.90.37
Time, mo
 120.51 (0.33–0.81)−2.90.0040.81 (0.46–1.41)−0.76.450.35 (0.19–0.64)−3.38.001
 240.72 (0.44–1.16)−1.36.170.79 (0.39–1.61)−0.66.510.77 (0.41–1.46)−0.81.42
 361.00 (Ref)11.00 (Ref)
Intervention
Booster versus Nonbooster1.20 (0.96–1.52)1.59.11
Unit type66.47 (43.27–102.09)
 Surgical1.40 (0.80–2.44)1.19.230.62 (0.35–1.10)−1.63.1019.16<.001
 Medical1.46 (0.88–2.42)1.45.152.00 (1.68–2.38)7.84<.0011.59 (1.44–1.77)8.97<.001
 NICU0.17 (0.05–0.61)−2.72.0070.03 (0.01–0.12)−4.59<.0010.01 (0.00–0.02)−7.70<.001
 PICU1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
Average occupied beds1.05 (1.02–1.09)2.79.0051.12 (1.07–1.17)4.77<.0011.24 (1.18–1.31)7.89<.001
Average patient stay1.11 (1.04–1.19)3.14.0021.06 (1.02–1.10)3.40.0011.17 (1.13–1.21)9.17<.001
Total patient days1.00 (1.00–1.00)−1.57.121.00 (1.00–1.00)0.41.680.99 (0.99–0.99)−15.17<.001
Mean age on unit1.00 (0.91–1.09)−0.10.920.96 (0.89–1.03)−1.15.250.48 (0.44–0.52)−17.06<.001
Pain consultation service (yes vs no)0.88 (0.67–1.16)−0.89.370.86 (0.50–1.25)−0.75.580.93 (0.46–1.44)−0.16.92
  • These analyses were restricted to participants who underwent a painful procedure, on all 16 units. Adjusted odds ratios represent the relative increase in odds of experiencing severe pain compared with moderate pain. Intercept-adjusted odds, –2.78 (0.68); z value, –4.10; P < .001. CI, confidence interval.