TABLE 1

Demographic Characteristics of the Top 5% Children With Highest Medicaid Spending in 2010 According to Their Longitudinal Trends in Spending From 2011–2013

CharacteristicOverall (N = 48 743), %Trends in High Resource UsePa
Transientb (n = 26 428), %Intermittentc (n = 6301), %Persistentd (n = 16 041), %
Age, ye
 1–27.49.65.94.3<.001
 3–410.512.39.87.7
 5–1244.742.844.647.7
  ≥1337.535.239.740.3
Female42.344.144.338.6<.001
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white48.94747.152.6<.001
 Non-Hispanic black26.029.825.819.6
 Hispanic4.75.74.13.4
 Other20.417.52324.3
Medicaid eligibility
 Disability39.128.440.956.0<.001
 Other60.971.659.144.0
  • a P values are obtained from a χ2 test comparing the prevalence of the characteristic of interest across the spending groups.

  • b Children whose spending fell below the top 5% in a subsequent year and did not return to the top 5% during the study period.

  • c Children whose spending did not meet the top 5% threshold in a subsequent year did eventually return to the top 5% (eg, below the 5% threshold in 2011 and above it in 2012).

  • d Children whose spending remained in the top 5% consistently from 2011–2013.

  • e Age was assessed in year 2010.