TABLE 2

Clinical and Health Service Characteristics of the Top 5% Children With the Highest Medicaid Spending in 2010 According to Their Trends in Subsequent Spending From 2011–2013

CharacteristicOverall (N = 48 743), %Trends in High Resource UsePa
Transientb (n = 26 428), %Intermittentc (n = 6301), %Persistentd (n = 16 014), %
No. of chronic conditionse
 01.82.91.00.3<.001
 113.216.610.88.5
 221.624.42117.2
 320.921.922.218.8
 415.314.417.316.1
 510.79.211.612.9
 ≥616.410.516.226.2
Complex chronic conditionse
 Any51.341.852.766.4<.001
 Type
  Neuromuscular24.615.023.540.9<.001
  Malignancy16.114.115.419.5
  Congenital/genetic12.28.311.818.7
  Cardiovascular11.08.812.014.2
  Gastrointestinal9.45.57.716.6
  Metabolic7.75.46.811.9
  Hematologic/immunologic6.34.67.88.5
  Respiratory4.32.42.98.2
  Renal4.02.63.66.3
  Neonatal2.31.61.83.5
  Transplant1.10.60.92.1
  Technology assistance10.96.38.319.7
Health services usef
 Mental health68.563.069.577.2<.001
 ED49.351.852.843.8
 Hospital38.341.941.131.2
 Home health8.44.57.615.0
  • a P values are obtained from a χ2 test comparing the prevalence of the characteristic of interest across the spending groups.

  • b Children whose spending fell below the top 5% in a subsequent year and did not return to the top 5% during the study period.

  • c Children whose spending did not meet the top 5% threshold in a subsequent year but did eventually return to the top 5% (eg, below 5% threshold in 2011 and above it in 2012).

  • d Children whose spending remained in the top 5% consistently from 2011–2013.

  • e Clinical characteristics were identified in years 2009 or 2010.

  • f Shown are the percent of children using the health service at least once in 2010.