TABLE 1

Evidence Summary by Topic

Study, year (design)Sample Size, NAge, yStudy GoalInterventionOutcomes
Biofeedback
 Knox et al, 2011 (clinical trial)5249–17Examined changes in anxiety and depressionHeart rate variability biofeedback based on a session-by-session protocolBiofeedback-assisted relaxation training can be useful in decreasing anxiety and depressive symptoms
 Palermo et al, 2010 (meta-analysis)61247 (25 studies)9–17Quantify the effects of psychological therapies for the management of chronic pain in youthCognitive-behavioral therapy, relaxation therapy, and biofeedbackOmnibus cognitive-behavioral therapy, relaxation therapy, and biofeedback all produced significant and positive effects on pain reduction
 Monastra et al, 2005 (review)7N/A6–19Effects of EEG biofeedback on ADHDEEG biofeedbackEEG biofeedback was determined to be “probably efficacious” for the treatment of ADHD
 Eccleston et al, 2002 (systematic review)88086–18Efficacy of psychological therapy of children and adolescents with chronic painVariety of biofeedback modalitiesTreatments examined are effective in reducing the severity and frequency of chronic pain
Clinical hypnosis
 Rutten et al, 2013 (systematic review)91085–18Assess efficacy of HT in pediatric patients with FAP and IBSGut-directed HTTherapeutic effects of HT seem superior to standard medical care in children with FAP or IBS
 Accardi and Milling, 2009 (systematic review)105283–19Effectiveness of hypnosis in reducing procedure-related painHypnosisHypnosis was more effective than standard medical care or control at relieving pain in children during medical procedures
 Vlieger et al, 2007 (RCT)11538–18Effectiveness of hypnosis for FAP and IBS6 sessions of 50 min over a 3-mo period of gut-directed HTGut-directed HT is highly effective in the treatment of children with longstanding FAP or IBS
 Richardson et al, 2006 (systematic review)123133–18Effectiveness of hypnosis for procedure-related pain and distress in pediatric patients with cancerHypnosisHypnosis has the potential to reduce procedure-related pain and distress in pediatric patients with cancer
 Butler et al, 2005 (RCT)13444–15Examine whether hypnotic relaxation could reduce distress for children who undergo VCUGHypnosisResults indicate significant benefits for the hypnosis group
 Calipel et al, 2005 (RCT)14502–11Efficacy of hypnosis on anxiety and perioperative behavioral disordersHypnosisHypnosis alleviates preoperative anxiety
Guided imagery
 Weigensberg et al, 2014 (RCT)153514–17Determine the effects of the mind-body modality of IGI in obese Latino adolescents12 weekly sessions of a lifestyle education plus IGI programThe IGI group showed significant reductions in leisure sedentary behavior and increases in moderate physical activity
 van Tilburg et al, 2009 (pilot study)16346–15Test a home-based, guided imagery treatment protocol using audio and video recordings2-mo guided imagery treatmentGuided imagery treatment plus medical care was superior to standard medical care only for the treatment of abdominal pain
 Weydert et al, 2006 (RCT)17225–18Evaluated the therapeutic effect of guided imagery for children with recurrent abdominal pain4 weekly sessions of guided imagery with progressive muscle relaxationSignificantly greater decrease in the number of days with pain
Meditation and MBSR
 Britton et al, 2014 (RCT, pilot)1810111.7 (mean)Effects of a nonelective, classroom-based, teacher-implemented, mindfulness meditation intervention on standard clinical measures of mental health and affect6-wk program with daily mindfulness meditation practiceBoth control and intervention groups decreased significantly on clinical syndrome subscales and affect but did not differ in the extent of their improvements
 Sibinga et al, 2014 (RCT)194313–21Explore the specific effects of MBSR for urban youth8 weekly 2-h MBSR sessions and a 3-h retreatMBSR did not result in statistically significant differences in self-reported survey outcomes of interest but was associated with qualitative outcomes of increased calm, conflict avoidance, self-awareness, and self-regulation for urban youth
 Sibinga et al, 2013 (RCT)204111–14Effects of a school-based MBSR program for young urban males12-session programs of MBSRResults provide cautious support that MBSR enhances self-regulatory processes for urban male youth, including improved psychological symptoms and enhanced coping
 Sibinga et al, 201621 (RCT)30012 (mean)Ameliorate the negative effects of stress and trauma among low-income, minority, middle-school public school students12-wk programMBSR students had significantly lower levels of somatization, depression, negative affect, negative coping, rumination, self-hostility, and posttraumatic symptom severity
 Barnes et al, 2012 (RCT)226215–17Impact of TM on LVM in African-American youth at increased risk of development of cardiovascular disease15-min TM sessions twice/day for 4 moTM decreased LVM index in prehypertensive African-American adolescents
 Wright et al, 2011 (RCT)1912114–15Impact on ABP in African-American patients at increased risk of development of essential hypertensionBAM each weekday, 10-min sessions for 3 moBAM participants showed significant reductions in self-reported hostility and 24-h systolic ABP
 Flook et al 2010 (RCT)23647–9Evaluate school-based program of MAPs30-min MAPs, twice/week for 8 wkStronger effect of MAPs on children with executive function difficulties
 Biegel et al 2009 (RCT)2410214–18Assess the effect of the MBSR program for adolescents with heterogeneous diagnoses in an outpatient psychiatric facility8 weekly MBSR classes, meeting 2 h/wkMBSR may be a beneficial adjunct to outpatient mental health treatment of adolescents
 Barnes et al, 2004 (RCT)2510015–17Determine the impact of stress reduction on blood pressure in adolescents by the TM program15-min TM sessions, twice/day for 4 moBeneficial impact of the TM program in youth at risk of the development of hypertension
 Barnes et al, 2003 (RCT)264515–18Determine the effect of stress reduction via the TM program on school rule infractions in adolescents15-min TM sessions, twice/day for 4 moTM program conducted in the school setting has a beneficial effect on absenteeism, rule infractions, and suspension rates
Yoga
 Hagins et al, 2013 (RCT)273010–11Effects of yoga on physiologic response to behavioral stressor tasks50 min yoga, 3 times/wk for 15 wkNo significant differences in physiologic responses to behavioral stressors between groups
 Telles et al, 2013 (RCT)28988–13Effects of yoga on physical fitness, cognitive performance, self-esteem45 min yoga, 5 d/wk for 3 moSocial self-esteem higher in control versus yoga group, whereas general and parental self-esteem improved
 Khalsa et al, 2012 (RCT)2912115–19Evaluate potential mental health benefits of yoga for adolescents in secondary school30–40 min yoga, 2–3 times/wk for 11 wkMeasures of anger, resilience and fatigue/inertia significantly improved
 Nidhi et al, 2012 (RCT)307215–18Efficacy of yoga on glucose metabolism and blood lipid values in adolescent girls with PCOS60 min yoga, 7 d/wk for 12 wkFasting insulin, fasting blood glucose, and insulin resistance were significantly improved
 White, 2012 (RCT)311558–11Efficacy of yoga to reduce perceived stress, enhance coping abilities, self-esteem, and self-regulation60 min yoga, 1 d/wk for 8 wk, as well as 10 min yoga homework 6 d/wkSelf-esteem and self-regulation increased in both groups, whereas the yoga group reported greater appraisal of stress and greater frequency of coping
 Mendelson et al, 2010 (RCT)32979.7 and 10.6 (mean)Improve adjustment among chronically stressed and disadvantaged youth45 min yoga, 4 d/wk for 12 wkSignificant improvement in the RSQ Involuntary Engagement Scale and component subscales for rumination, intrusive thoughts, and emotional arousal
  • ABP, ambulatory blood pressure; ADHD, attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder; BAM, breathing awareness meditation; HT, hypnotherapy; IGI, Interactive Guided Imagery; LVM, left ventricular mass; MAP, mindful awareness practice; N/A, not available; PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome; RSQ, Responses to Stress Questionnaire; VCUG, voiding cystourethrography.