TABLE 2

Examining Participation in Sports and Exercise and Lifetime Prevalence of NPOU and Heroin Use (All Respondents)

Participation in Sports and Exercise% Lifetime NPOULifetime NPOU% Lifetime Heroin UseLifetime Heroin Use
aOR95% CIaOR95% CI
No past-year participation in sports and exercise (reference)11.22.9
Participates in sports and exercise once a week at most8.40.86*0.80–0.921.80.74*0.65–0.86
Participates in sports and exercise almost every day6.50.74*0.68–0.791.30.66*0.57–0.76
Control variables
 Male (reference)7.51.6
 Female7.71.11*1.06–1.161.61.030.93–1.15
 White (reference)8.81.5
 Nonwhite6.00.59*0.56–0.621.71.47*1.33–1.63
 Respondent is in 8th grade (reference)5.21.6
 Respondent is in 10th grade10.21.44*1.37–1.501.60.52*0.47–0.58
 Never has been suspended from school (reference)5.50.9
 Has been suspended ≥1 time from school14.01.44*1.38–1.513.81.63*1.47–1.80
 Both parents have less than a college degree (reference)8.61.9
 At least 1 parent has a college degree or higher6.71.040.99–1.091.31.10**1.00–1.22
 Respondent lives in a non MSA (reference)9.11.9
 Respondent lives in a MSA7.90.950.90–1.001.50.910.81–1.03
 Respondent lives in a large MSA6.20.84*0.79–0.891.51.060.93–1.20
 Respondent lives in the Northeast (reference)6.51.4
 Respondent lives in the Midwest7.91.15*1.08–1.241.60.870.75–1.00
 Respondent lives in the South8.01.17*1.09–1.241.60.83***0.73–0.95
 Respondent lives in the West7.71.31*1.22–1.401.70.940.81–1.08
 Cohort years (1997–1999) (reference)10.12.3
 Cohort years (2000–2002)8.10.84*0.78–0.901.80.83**0.72–0.96
 Cohort years (2003–2005)7.20.87*0.81–0.931.60.69*0.60–0.80
 Cohort years (2006–2008)7.71.060.99–1.141.40.60*0.52–0.70
 Cohort years (2009–2011)7.71.09**1.01–1.181.40.58*0.50–0.68
 Cohort years (2012–2014)5.00.83*0.76–0.901.00.58*0.48–0.69
 No lifetime cigarette use (reference)2.40.3
 Lifetime cigarette use17.52.14*2.02–2.264.02.18*1.88–2.51
 No lifetime alcohol use (reference)1.40.3
 Lifetime alcohol use13.32.42*2.22–2.632.81.26**1.05–1.51
 No lifetime illicit drug use, excluding opioids (reference)1.10.1
 Lifetime illicit drug use, excluding opioids17.97.61*7.07–8.204.012.81*10.05–16.32
 No lifetime heroin use (reference)6.9
 Initiated heroin use in 4th or 7th grade66.810.21*8.50–12.27
 Initiated heroin use in 8th, 9th, or 10th grade71.59.36*7.96–11.00
 No lifetime NPOU (reference)0.7
 Initiated NPOU use in 4th–7th grade32.020.75*17.95–23.99
 Initiated NPOU use in 8th, 9th, or 10th grade14.910.99*9.41–12.82
  • MSA, Metropolitan Statistical Area.

  • * P < .05.

  • ** P < .01.

  • *** P < .001.