TABLE 1

Measures

Source and Measure
Polysomnography
 Arousal index: number of electrocortical arousals per hour of sleep
 Apnea hypopnea index: number of apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep
 Oxygen desaturation index of ≥3% per hour of sleep
 Percentage sleep time with end-tidal CO2 values >50 mm Hg
 Percentage sleep time in stage 1 (light) sleep
 Percentage sleep time in stage 3 sleep
 Percentage sleep time in rapid eye movement sleep
 Sleep efficiency: percentage time in sleep during the total recording period
 Normalization of OSAS: decrease from baseline to 7-mo follow-up in AHI to <2 events per hour and of obstructive apnea index to <1 event per hour
Parent ratings of sleep disturbance
 PSQ-SRBD32: proportion of 22 yes/no items endorsed, with higher scores indicating more problems
 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea assessment tool33: range 18–126, with higher scores indicating more negative disease specific quality of life
 mESS34: range 0–24, with higher scores indicating more sleepiness
Neuropsychological domains and tests
 Verbal skills: DAS-II35 Word Definitions and Verbal Similarities; NEPSY36 Phonological Processing, Comprehension of Instructions, and Speeded Naming
 Nonverbal reasoning: DAS-II Matrices, Sequential and Quantitative Reasoning, Pattern Construction, and Recall of Designs
 Attention and executive function: NEPSY Visual Attention, Auditory Attention and Response Set, and Tower; NEPSY-II37 Inhibition (Naming, Inhibition, and Switching conditions) and Word Generation (Semantic and Initial Letter conditions)
 Perceptual–motor and visual–spatial skills: Purdue Pegboard Test38,39 (Dominant Hand, Non-dominant Hand, and Both Hands conditions); Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration40; NEPSY Arrows
 Verbal learning and memory: WRAML241 Verbal Learning Test (Learning, Recall, and Recognition conditions)
  • Standardized scores for age used for all neuropsychological tests, including T-scores for the DAS-II (normative mean [SD] = 50 [10], range 10–90), scaled scores for the NEPSY, NEPSY-II, and WRAML2 (normative mean [SD] = 50 [10], range 1–19), and standard scores for the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (normative mean [SD] = 100 [15], range 45–155). Age standardized scores for the Purdue Pegboard were obtained by regressing the raw scores at baseline on age and sex to estimate expected scores and computing differences in z score units between the expected and obtained scores. Higher scores on all neuropsychological tests indicate higher skill levels.