TABLE 1

Short- and Long-term Effects of Fetal Substance Exposure

EffectAlcoholMarijuanaOpiatesCocaineMethamphetamine
Short-term effects or birth outcome
 Fetal growth++++/−+++
 Anomalies+++
 Withdrawal+++-Unknown
 Neurobehavior++++
Long-term effects
 Growth++++/−Unknown
 Behavior++++++Unknown
 Cognition+++++/−+Unknown
 Language+-Unknown+Unknown
 Achievement++++Unknown+/−Unknown
  • Adapted with permission from Behnke et al (2013).11 +++, strong effect; +, effect; +/−, no consensus about effect; −, no known effect.