TABLE 2

Causes of Secondary Hypertension in a Tertiary Pediatric Hypertension Clinic

CausesTotal No. (%)Age at Diagnosis, y, Median (Range)Male Sex No. (%)
Autoimmune3(1)10.5 (9–17)2 (67)
Cardiac4(3)4.5 (1–11)3 (75)
Endocrine9 (6)12 (6–17)2 (22)
Gastrointestinal2(1)9.5 (0.17–0.75)2 (100)
Hematologic1(1)81 (100)
Medications21 (13)13 (0.08–18)16 (76)
Neurologic19 (12)10 (0.25–18)14 (74)
Renal53 (34)10 (0.08–19)33 (62)
Respiratory32 (20)1 (0.01–17)20 (63)
Sleep-disordered breathing12 (8)14 (4–17)10 (83)
Total156
  • Reprinted with permission from Gupta-Malhotra M, Banker A, Shete S, et al. Essential hypertension versus secondary hypertension among children. Am J Hypertens. 2015;28(1):73–80.