TABLE 3

Logistic Regression Examining Participation in Sports and Exercise and History of NPOU in Relation to Initiating Heroin Use (Lifetime Heroin Use Only)

Lifetime Heroin Use OnlyInitiated NPOU and Heroin in the Same GradeInitiated NPOU in ≥1 Grade Before Initiating Heroin UseInitiated Heroin Use in ≥1 Grade Before Initiating NPOU
Participation in Sports and Exercise%aOR95% CI%aOR95% CI%aOR95% CI%aOR95% CI
No past year participation in sports and exercise (reference)18.733.717.69.5
Participates in sports and exercise once a week at most17.20.900.73–1.1228.30.950.79–1.1513.40.960.77–1.197.00.72*0.53–0.98
Participates in sports and exercise almost every day12.81.140.89–1.4613.70.66**0.52–0.835.80.60**0.45–0.814.40.780.52–1.17
Control variables0.00.0
 Male (reference)15.624.212.17.2
 Female17.31.020.85–1.2327.11.080.92–1.2712.61.000.81–1.236.60.870.66–1.14
 White (reference)16.226.012.76.3
 Nonwhite16.10.900.75–1.0924.10.930.78–1.1011.40.920.74–1.137.11.140.86–1.52
 Respondent is in 8th grade (reference)16.523.210.95.6
 Respondent is in 10th grade16.60.910.76–1.1029.31.100.93–1.2913.91.200.98–1.478.41.36*1.04–1.78
 Never has been suspended from school (reference)15.720.18.34.2
 Has been suspended ≥1 time from school17.30.67**0.55–0.8130.81.130.96–1.3316.31.53**1.23–1.919.71.51***1.13–2.03
 Both parents have less than a college degree (reference)17.026.313.07.4
 ≥1 Parent has a college degree or higher15.90.80*0.67–0.9725.01.160.99–1.3711.31.000.82–1.236.41.080.82–1.42
 Respondent lives in a non-MSA (reference)15.128.912.17.0
 Respondent lives in an MSA16.51.090.85–1.3924.00.880.71–1.0710.70.980.76–1.267.51.340.95–1.90
 Respondent lives in a large MSA16.31.35*1.05–1.7423.40.850.68–1.0613.61.34*1.02–1.765.50.870.60–1.28
 Respondent lives in the Northeast (reference)15.925.213.07.4
 Respondent lives in the Midwest15.61.000.76–1.3225.10.920.72–1.1713.51.050.78–1.427.50.980.66–1.44
 Respondent lives in the South16.11.060.84–1.3425.11.090.88–1.3510.80.910.69–1.197.00.930.66–1.29
 Respondent lives in the West17.00.940.72–1.2424.21.020.80–1.2911.30.930.69–1.255.10.65**0.42–1.00
 Cohort years (1997–1999) (reference)24.233.915.38.9
 Cohort years (2000–2002)16.10.76*0.59–0.9820.10.60**0.47–0.779.10.63**0.45–0.886.41.040.71–1.54
 Cohort years (2003–2005)19.40.72*0.56–0.9429.90.950.75–1.1914.91.120.84–1.497.80.910.62–1.35
 Cohort years (2006–2008)12.80.64***0.47–0.8724.01.070.82–1.3912.11.190.86–1.657.10.990.65–1.51
 Cohort years (2009–2011)9.50.53**0.37–0.7419.60.940.70–1.279.01.010.71–1.445.20.770.46–1.29
 Cohort years (2012–2014)9.30.50**0.34–0.7316.90.890.64–1.249.41.240.83–1.863.60.580.32–1.05
 No lifetime cigarette use (reference)14.216.57.95.1
 Lifetime cigarette use21.21.100.83–1.4534.91.44***1.15–1.8016.81.350.95–1.919.30.940.64–1.39
 No lifetime alcohol use (reference)11.716.57.94.8
 Lifetime alcohol use21.21.010.75–1.3733.51.140.88–1.4716.11.100.76–1.619.01.060.68–1.67
 No lifetime illicit drug use, excluding opioids (reference)5.77.93.51.8
 Lifetime illicit drug use, excluding opioids21.82.16**1.64–2.8733.92.30**1.81–2.9216.32.59**1.85–3.649.31.96***1.18–3.27
 Initiated heroin use between the 8th and 10th grade (reference)12.319.211.72.4
 Initiated heroin use between the 4th and 7th grade27.41.66**1.36–2.0242.01.73**1.45–2.0612.60.65**0.51–0.8219.86.96**5.27–9.18
  • MSA, Metropolitan Statistical Area. Multiple imputations were estimated for each outcome (overall row percentages will not add to 100%).

  • * P < .05.

  • ** P < .01.

  • *** P < .001.