TABLE 1

Appropriate Intake of Food and Liquids Before Elective Sedation

Ingested MaterialMinimum Fasting Period, h
Clear liquids: water, fruit juices without pulp, carbonated beverages, clear tea, black coffee2
Human milk4
Infant formula6
Nonhuman milk: because nonhuman milk is similar to solids in gastric emptying time, the amount ingested must be considered when determining an appropriate fasting period.6
Light meal: a light meal typically consists of toast and clear liquids. Meals that include fried or fatty foods or meat may prolong gastric emptying time. Both the amount and type of foods ingested must be considered when determining an appropriate fasting period.6
  • Source: American Society of Anesthesiologists. Practice guidelines for preoperative fasting and the use of pharmacologic agents to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration: application to healthy patients undergoing elective procedures. An updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Committee on Standards and Practice Parameters. Available at: https://www.asahq.org/For-Members/Practice-Management/Practice-Parameters.aspx. For emergent sedation, the practitioner must balance the depth of sedation versus the risk of possible aspiration; see also Mace et al272 and Green et al.273