TABLE 2

Effects of Low-Level Lead Exposure on Academic and Intellectual Abilities, Puberty, Kidney Function, Postnatal Growth, Hearing, and Other Health Endpoints

Blood Lead ConcentrationEvidence LevelHealth Effect
<5 µg/dLSufficientDecreased academic achievement
Lower IQ scores
Attention-related behavior problems
Antisocial behaviors
LimitedDelayed puberty
Decreased kidney function in children ≥12 y of age
<10 µg/dLSufficientDelayed puberty
Reduced postnatal growth
Decreased hearing
LimitedHypersensitivity by skin prick test
InadequateAsthma and eczema
Cardiovascular effects
Kidney function <12 y of age
  • From the US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2012.