TABLE 4

Propensity-Adjusted 10-y Excess Risk of Cancer (95% CI) per 100 000 Newborns Exposed to Phototherapy

No Down SyndromeDown Syndrome
All cancer1.2(−89, +91)26(−1959, +2011)
All leukemia27(−22, +76)1547(−1269, +4364)
Lymphocytic15(−21, +51)503(−820, +1826)
Nonlymphocytic13(−16, +42)1654(−1102, +4410)
Whole Population
 Kidney10(−11, +31)
 Bone−2(−12, +7)
 Liver0(−18, +18)
  • To obtain the number needed to harm (NNH), divide positive numbers shown into 100 000. For example, for all leukemia among infants without Down syndrome, the point estimate for the number of children who would need to be exposed to phototherapy to cause 1 case of leukemia over 10 y (if the association is causal) would be 100 000/27 = 3704, whereas for children with Down syndrome it would be 100 000/1547 = 65.