TABLE 4

Outcomes for Children at 18 to 22 Months’ CA by Maternal IDDM and Timing of Maternal Insulin Use

Outcome, n (%)IBPIDPNo IDDMAdjusted RR (95% CI) for Outcomea
IBP vs IDPIBP vs No IDDMIDP vs No IDDM
Children eligible for 18–22 mo follow-upn = 189n = 101n = 6598
 Died before discharge66 (35)31 (31)2423 (37)1.10 (0.82–1.47)1.06 (0.89–1.26)0.97 (0.76–1.23)
 Total deaths between birth and 18–22 mo CA69 (37)31 (31)2496 (38)1.13 (0.85–1.51)1.07 (0.90–1.26)0.94 (0.74–1.20)
Children seen at follow-up for whom NDI was determinedn = 109n = 64n = 3608
 NDI21 (19)8 (13)586 (16)1.20 (0.58–2.50)1.22 (0.83–1.78)1.01 (0.53–1.91)
  Evaluated before 2010, n/N (%) (2006 NDI definition)b7/43 (16)0/26 (0)157/1337 (12)1.50 (0.74–3.04)
  Evaluated 2010 or later, n/N (%) (2010 NDI definition)b14/66 (21)8/38 (21)429/2271 (19)0.86 (0.41–1.83)1.09 (0.70–1.70)1.26 (0.68–2.33)
 NDI (2006 definition for all)16 (15)6 (9)521 (14)1.23 (0.52–2.93)1.05 (0.67–1.64)0.85 (0.40–1.80)
Children seen at follow-up with key formcn = 111n = 65n = 3707
 Bilateral blindness1 (<1)1 (2)44 (1)0.56 (0.04–8.87)0.76 (0.10–5.71)1.35 (0.18–9.92)
 Hearing impairment3 (3)0 (0)111 (3)1.00 (0.32–3.13)
 CP, any grade10 (9)6 (9)428 (12)0.84 (0.33–2.12)0.78 (0.43–1.40)0.93 (0.45–1.92)
 CP, moderate-severe4 (4)1 (2)217 (6)1.71 (0.19–15.05)0.63 (0.24–1.68)0.37 (0.05–2.59)
 Cognitive CS <7014 (13)5 (8)337 (9)1.30 (0.50–3.40)1.41 (0.86–2.32)1.09 (0.47–2.53)
 Language CS <7021 (19)10 (16)619 (17)0.99 (0.51–1.95)1.08 (0.74–1.60)1.09 (0.62–1.92)
Children seen at follow-up January 2010 or later with Bayley III motor scoren = 66n = 38n = 2248
 Motor CS <7012 (18)6 (16)286 (13)0.91 (0.37–2.24)1.34 (0.81–2.23)1.48 (0.68–3.19)
  • CP, cerebral palsy; CS, composite score.

  • a RRs and CIs from modified Poisson regression models fit to each outcome that in addition to the maternal insulin timing indicator (IBP, IDP, no IDDM) included study center, GA (categorical), male gender, antenatal steroid use, maternal race/ethnicity (white, black, Hispanic, other), maternal age, and maternal education (less than high school degree, high school degree, partial college or more, missing). Study center was not included in the models fit to blindness or hearing impairment due to small numbers. None of the infants whose mothers started IDP had NDI in the subset seen at follow-up before 2010, and none had hearing impairment; RRs involving this group were not estimated for these outcomes.

  • b The 2006 definition of NDI was ≥1 of bilateral blindness, hearing impairment, moderate to severe CP, gross motor function level ≥2, or Bayley III cognitive CS <70. Bayley III motor CS <70 was added to the 2010 definition of NDI.

  • c In the group of children seen at follow-up with ≥1 key form, information was missing for the following children: blindness 7; hearing impairment 5; CP 5; Bayley III cognitive CS 83; Bayley III language CS 158.