TABLE 2

Risk of Bias Summarized Assessment (QUIPS26)

BiasesBengtson et al 198831Carpenter 197842Chakraborty et al 199436Cunha et al 200432Galili et al 196939Hulland et al 200030Jaber et al 199211King et al 199943Kiran et al 201137Noor-Mohammed and Basha 201238Peretz et al 200334Ramos-Jorge et al 201133Shapira et al 200340Tasanen 196935Wake et al 200010Yam et al 200241
Study participationHighModLowLowModLowModLowLowLowLowLowLowLowLowHigh
Study attritionHighXModXHighHighHighXLowLowHighModHighModModHigh
PF measurementHighModHighHighHighModHighHighHighHighLowLowModLowLowHigh
Outcome MeasurementHighLowHighHighLowLowHighHighHighHighModLowLowLowLowHigh
study confoundingHighLowHighHighLowLowHighHighHighHighHighLowLowLowLowHigh
Statistical analysis and presentationHighHighLowHighLowLowHighHighHighLowLowLowLowLowLowHigh
OverallHighModHighHighModLowHighHighHighModModLowLowLowLowHigh
  • Ratings: High, moderate, and low indicates high, moderate, and low risk of bias, respectively. PF, prognostic factor.