TABLE 3

Types of Analyses Conducted With Biopsy/Surgical and Postmortem Tissues

MoleculesAnalysesTissueStudies
DNAImmunoblotting, IHC, immunoprecipitation assayFresh or frozenNucleosome preservation and histone modifications210,211
DNA sequencingFrozen or formalin-fixedDetection of mutations and CAG repeats210,212
DNA microarraysFrozenDNA polymorphisms59,210
RNAPCRFresh or frozenDifferential gene expression studies,56 large-scale profiling of transcriptional activity,213 transcriptome expression patterns214
MicroarraysFormalin-fixed
In situ hybridizationFormalin-fixed
ProteinsWestern blot analysis, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 2-dimensional DIGE using a range of pH, ELISA, mass spectrometryFresh or frozenDifferential protein expression,215,216 protein–protein interactions,217 transcription factor translocations216
Protein sequencingFresh or frozenToponomics218
IHCFormalin-fixedProtein localization216
Receptor autoradiographyFresh or frozenReceptor detection207,219
LipidsHPLCFrozenDetection of glucosylceramide and other lipids storage220
Metal concentrations (ICPMS)Heavy metals detection221
Thin layer chromatographyDetermination of lipid classes,222 separation of phospholipids and neutral lipid subclasses, and unesterified and esterified fatty acids from total lipid extract223
Gas chromatography/gas-liquid chromatographyFor fatty acid methyl ester detection108,223
Iodine uptake methodPlasmalogens, plasmenyethanolamine, and plasmenylcholine detection224
  • DIGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HPLC, high-pressure liquid chromatography; ICPMS, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; IHC, immunohistochemistry.