TABLE 1

Demographic Characteristics of Families in the Analytic Sample

CharacteristicVIP (N = 176), %BB (N = 111), %Control (N = 176), %Pa
Mother <age 21 y10129.76
Hispanic949692.46
Non–high school graduate625460.40
Born outside the United States928787.26
Married/partner858885.72
Spanish speaking857982.50
Low socioeconomic status939291.91
Female child565148.28
First-born child423736.50
Low maternal literacy (less than ninth grade)323122.10
High psychosocial risk343330.63
  • The analytic sample includes all families contributing data at ≥1 time point.

  • a P value based on χ2 tests.