TABLE 2

Some Costs of Tobacco Use and SHS Exposure

ItemCostSourceYears Data CollectedCitation
Smoking during pregnancy: neonatal health careSmoking-attributable fraction for neonatal costs: 2.2% (all states); $700/infant born to a mother who smoked during pregnancyCenters for Disease Control and Prevention Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) database1995Adams et al (2002)136
SHS exposure of pregnant women: early intervention services delivered to children with developmental delay attributed to maternal SHS exposure during pregnancy$99 million for early-intervention services delivered to 8300 New York City children ($11 900/child)New York City data2002Miller et al (2006)137
SHS exposure of children: health care costs9% of total direct medical costs in the first year of lifeBirth cohort study in Hong Kong1997–1998Leung et al (2003)51
SHS exposure of children: respiratory disease, sudden infant death, burns, costs to the familyDirect medical expenditures of $4.6 billion; loss-of-life costs of $8.2 billionLiterature synthesis1980–1996Aligne and Stoddard (1997)3
SHS exposure of children: medical expenditures for childhood respiratory illnessRespiratory-related health care expenditures: 19% of expenditures for childhood respiratory conditions ($120/child aged ≤5 y; $175/child aged ≤2 y)National Medical Expenditure Survey1987Stoddard and Gray (1997)52
Overall smoking in the United States6%–8% of total annual expenditures for health care, with some estimates up to 14%Literature synthesisThrough 1998Warner et al (1999)138