TABLE 3

Selected Level 1 and 2 ASD Screening Measures

Screening ToolAgeFormat (No. of Items)Time to Complete, minReported SensitivityReported SpecificitySelected Key ReferencesAvailability
Level 1a
    CHAT18–24+ moParent interview or questionnaire and interactive (parent: 9; clinician: 5)50.18–0.38b; 0.65c0.98–1.0b; 1.0cBaron-Cohen et al,267 Baron-Cohen et al,272 Baird et al,19 Scambler et al273Download: www.autismresearchcentre.com/tests/chat_test.asp
    CHAT, Denver Modifications18–24+ moParent interview or questionnaire and interactive (parent: 9; clinician: 5)50.85c1.0cScambler et al273CHAT scoring modifications; available in Scambler et al273
    Checklist for Autism in Toddlers-23 (CHAT-23)16–86 mo (all had mental ages of 18–24 mo)Parent interview or questionnaire and interactive (parent: 23, clinician: 5)100.84–0.93c (part A); 0.74c (part B)0.77–0.85c (part A); 0.91c (part B)Wong et al274Combination of M-CHAT and CHAT items; protocol available in Wong et al274
    CAST4–11 yQuestionnaire completed by parent (37)100.88–1.0d0.97–0.98dScott et al,275 Williams et al,235 Williams et al276Download: www.autismresearchcentre.com/tests/cast_test.asp
    M-CHAT16–48 moQuestionnaire completed by parent (23)5–100.85d0.93dDumont-Matthieu and Fein,277 Robins et al268Download: www.dbpeds.org/media/mchat.pdf or www.firstsigns.org/downloads/m-chat.pdf; for scoring: www.firstsigns.org/downloads/m-chat_scoring.PDF
    Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Test-II, Primary Care Screener (PDDST-II PCS)18–48 moQuestionnaire completed by parent (22)10–150.92c0.91cSiegel269Purchase: PsychCorp/Harcourt Assessment (www.harcourtassessment.com)
Level 2
    Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS)5–18 yQuestionnaire completed by parent, teacher, or clinician (50)10–150.85cMyles et al,278 Campbell270Purchase: Pro-Ed (www.proedinc.com)
    Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC)≥18 moBehavioral checklist completed by interviewer (57 )10–200.38–0.58c0.76–0.97cKrug et al279Purchase: Pro-Ed (www.proedinc.com) as part of the Autism Screening Instrument for Educational Planning (ASIEP-2)
    Autism Quotient (AQ)–Adolescent Version11–16 yQuestionnaire completed by parent (50)150.89c1.0cBaron-Cohen et al280Download: www.autismresearchcentre.com/tests/aq_adolescent_test.asp
    Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ)6–17 yQuestionnaire completed by parent (27)100.62–0.82c (parent); 0.65–0.70c (teacher)Ehlers et al281Questions are included as an appendix in Ehlers et al281
    Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)>2 yBehavioral checklist completed by trained interviewer/ observer (15)Variable0.92–0.98c; 0.94c0.85cEaves and Milner,282 Perry et al,283 Schopler et al284, Sevin et al285Purchase: Western Psychological Services (www.wpspublish.com)
    Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale (GADS)3–22 yQuestionnaire completed by parent, teacher, or clinician (32)10Gilliam,286 Campbell270Purchase: Pro-Ed (www.proedinc.com)
    Gilliam Autism Rating Scale–2nd Edition (GARS-2)3–22 yQuestionnaire completed by parent or teacher (42)5–10Gilliam287Purchase: Pro-Ed (www.proedinc.com)
    Krug Asperger's Disorder Index (KADI)6–21 yQuestionnaire completed by parent or clinician (32)15–200.78c0.94cKrug and Arick,288 Campbell270Purchase: Pro-Ed (www.proedinc.com)
    Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Test-II, Developmental Clinic Screener (PDDST-II, DCS)18–48 moQuestionnaire completed by parent (14)10–150.73c0.49cSiegel269Purchase: PsychCorp/Harcourt Assessment (www.harcourtassessment.com)
    Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Test-II, Autism Clinic Severity Screener (PDDST-II, ACSC)18–48 moQuestionnaire completed by parent (12)10–150.58c0.60cSiegel269Purchase: PsychCorp/Harcourt Assessment (www.harcourtassessment.com)
    Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT)24–36 moInteractive, requires specific training (12)200.92d0.85dStone et al,289 Stone et al290Author: Wendy Stone, PhD (triad@vanderbilt.edu)
    Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) (formerly the Autism Screening Questionnaire [ASQ])≥4 yQuestionnaire completed by parent (40)5–100.85–0.96c0.67–0.80cBerument et al,291 Rutter et al292Purchase: Western Psychological Services (www.wpspublish.com)
  • The measures were selected on the basis of availability of some published psychometric properties (in English) with scoring instructions and pass/fail cutoffs or the equivalent.

  • a Level 1 tools are most likely to be used in primary care settings.

  • b Population-based sample.

  • c Clinical sample.

  • d Clinical and population-based samples.Adapted from Coonrod EE, Stone WL. Screening for autism in young children. In: Volkmar FR, Paul R, Klin A, Cohen D, eds. Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. 3rd ed. Vol 2. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2005:707–729; Campbell JM. Diagnostic assessment of Asperger's disorder: a review of five third-party rating scales. J Autism Dev Disord. 2005;35:25–35; and Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C, et al. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) Manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services; 2003.