Screening for Celiac Disease in Type 1 Diabetes: A Systematic Review
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prevalence rates of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD) vary from 1.6% to 16.4% worldwide. Screening guidelines are variable and not evidence based. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of CD in T1D.
METHODS: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched. Studies were limited to those in English and in humans. We selected longitudinal cohort studies screening for CD in T1D with at least 5 years of follow-up. Screening rates, characteristics, and prevalence of biopsy-proven CD in people with T1D were extracted.
RESULTS: We identified 457 nonduplicate citations; 48 were selected for full-text review. Nine longitudinal cohort studies in 11 157 children and adolescents with 587 cases of biopsy-proven CD met the inclusion criteria. Median follow-up was 10 years (range: 5–18 years). The weighted pooled prevalence of CD was 5.1% (95% confidence interval: 3.1–7.4%). After excluding 41 cases with CD onset before T1D, CD was diagnosed in 218 of 546 (40%) subjects within 1 year, in 55% within 2 years, and in 79% within 5 years of diabetes duration. Two studies (478 cases) reported higher rates of CD in children aged <5 years at T1D diagnosis. The duration of follow-up varied across the included studies. CD screening frequency progressively decreased with increased T1D duration.
CONCLUSIONS: Because most cases of CD are diagnosed within 5 years of T1D diagnosis, screening should be considered at T1D diagnosis and within 2 and 5 years thereafter. CD screening should be considered at other times in patients with symptoms suggestive of CD. More research is required to determine the screening frequency beyond 5 years of diabetes duration.
- Accepted April 2, 2015.
- Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics